Wednesday, 14 April 2021

Reviewing the Power of Bessler’s Perpetual Motion Machine

Many people have calculated the potential power of Bessler’s wheel and concluded that it wouldn’t amount to much, however I’m not convinced that this is true.

Consider the 70 lbs chest of stones lifted by the two-way wheels.  If you’ve ever physically lifted a 70 pound weight you’ll have a good idea how very heavy it is.  Most airlines have a limit for passenger luggage of 23 kg, which is 50 lbs; adding another 20 pounds to make 70 lbs would be as much as most people could manage to lift comfortably.  Bessler’s wheel routinely lifted it up and down from the castle yard several feet, probably more than 50 feet.  

Professor Christian Wolff gave an account of his attendance at the Merseburg wheel examination. He wrote;

At the moment it can lift a weight of sixty pounds, but to achieve this the pulley had to be reduced more than four times, making the lifting quite slow."

The official certificate issued, described the weight as being seventy pounds and no mention was made of the four-fold pulley, I wonder if the reason for the use of the pulleys was, as Wolff commented, to slow down the lift to make it last longer, and extend the time of each demonstration. On the other hand the Kassel wheel was actually designed to rotate about half the speed of the Merseburg wheel, because it needed to run for four weeks or more.  It rotated slowly to save wear and tear.  It ran for 54 days before it was stopped.

If we take the Merseburg wheel for example, say the axle was six inches in diameter and the wheel turned at 40 rpm when under load, and the distance from the outside yard to roof, some fifty feet.  The circumference of the axle was close to 19 inches.  With the rope wrapped around the axle, one rotation lifted the chest of stones just over a foot and a half, fifty foot would take just over 30 seconds; not much of a demonstration. Using pulleys to reduce the load would also extend the time to perhaps a couple of minutes, just about long enough for all the spectators, of which there were said to be many crowded into the room, to view the lifting process, through the two windows.

There are several other considerations to bear in mind.  Firstly the demonstrations which showed the lifting task surely required some organising, and someone below in the castle yard to signal the lift could begin, or maybe Bessler had his brother Gottfried watching out of the window to say when the lift could begin. Was there slack in the rope attached to the axle or to chest of stones to reduce the effect of a sudden jerk?  Such a jerk could dismount the wheel from its supports if it was too strong. A rope loosely wrapped around the axle, two or three times would allow the axle to begin to rotate, while slipping the rope. Once the wheel was turning, a gentle pull on the rope would cause it to begin to grip the axle as it turned, thus beginning to wind up the chest of stones. Relaxing the rope as the chest neared the top would be more difficult, but perhaps a brake was applied to bring the wheel to a stop.

The pulleys would make lifting heavy loads easier and last longer. Bessler was a showman, and a slow lift with a very heavy load would be more interesting to the spectators.  It could not be helped if the pulleys conveyed the impression that the wheel was not as powerful as it actually was.  It was showtime and Bessler was a consummate master of ceremonies!

JC


Wednesday, 7 April 2021

Johann Bessler’s One-way and Two-Way Wheels.

When Johann Bessler, aka Orffyreus, first demonstrated his perpetual motion machine, he showed that it would begin to rotate as soon as a brake was released. It measured 4.6 feet in diameter and only 4 inches in thickness, and would accelerate up to its maximum speed of about 50 rpm.  Although subsequently he demonstrated much larger wheels which could turn in either direction, they were motionless until they were given a gentle nudge in one direction or the other, at which point they accelerated to their maximum speed in two or three turns.  The instant over-balancing feature of the early wheels indicated that their internal mechanical arrangement was in a state of perpetual imbalance, hence the need to apply a brake and locking attachment.

It has been argued that the wheel was stopped at a certain point at which it was out of balance, but in my opinion this is unlikely.  Witnesses were encouraged to adjust the speed of the wheel by screwing and unscrewing a bolt and I’m sure that some people would have brought the wheel to a full stop or at least slowed it down almost to a stand still.  It would quickly have become obvious if there were any points during rotation where imbalance was not detectable, or to put it another way, they could stop the wheel at a point at which the wheel didn’t continue to rotate. 

Bessler himself described the action within the wheel, as if it was constantly hunting or seeking balance,  but not finding it, and I believe that without this feature perpetual rotation wouldn’t happen.  The later two-way wheels were invented in order to dispose of the suggestion that they were wound up.  Whether or not they were as efficient in their use of the same mechanical advantage as the first two wheels remains to be seen, but they must have been more complex in their internal arrangements and therefore more likely to suffer break-downs.

I have always believed that Bessler sought to make the latter two wheels rotate in either direction by installing a mirrored version of the original wheel.  The idea being that both directions would cancel each other out thus leaving the wheel motionless.  Giving the wheel a nudge would engage which ever drive would propel it in that direction, leaving the alternative drive to either work in reverse, or lock up.

I tested this concept using two Savonius turbines on a single axle but with each designed to turn in opposite directions and I placed them in the path of the wind from a powerful fan, they did indeed spin in opposite directions.  With both turbines on the one axle but now connected to each other neither moved, predictably, but with nudge in one direction, they began to rotate, one forwards and one backwards, but only achieving half the speed of the two disconnected ones.  I have a video of the experiment which I will post when I find it! This supports the conclusion that mirror imaged mechanisms might hold the answer to the two-way wheels.

I know that other people don’t accept the mirror image design, speculating on a few alternatives, but I think this principle is something that would occur to Bessler first of all; two wheels on one axle each designed to turn the opposite way, but linked together.

Alternative  ways of producing wheels which turned in either direction required some kind of mechanism designed to make the internal mechanism change direction and I think this would be difficult to achieve, especially as there are no reports of Bessler operating some kind of lever to engage or disengage the internal mechanism.  Reports just say that the same technique of gently starting the wheel in a desired direction worked equally well for each direction. This leaves just an automated reaction to the change of direction of the wheel.  This in my opinion complicates the mechanism too much.

I know many people are working on the idea that there were about eight sounds being emitted from the side of the wheel towards which the wheel turned.  This sound was described as a “weight landing gently”, but what ever the cause of this sound, it was only with reference to the two-way wheel, and not the earlier one-way wheels.  I have asked the following question many times without ever receiving a simple logical explanation. “Why try to build Bessler’s two-way wheel, which are likely to be more complex than the one-way ones? The eight sounds of weights applied to the two-way wheels, but I know some are incorporating the eight sounds into their one-way wheels and that seems to me equally inexplicable.

Finally I have also reminded people that Bessler admitted that he had on previous occasions muffled the sounds coming from the wheels obviously with the intent to confuse or deceive the impressions of the design of the mechanisms within the wheel to the audience.  The same technique could have been applied to the two-way wheel. Added to this we should not rule out additional sounds made by extra weights installed to further confuse.

But in the end I know almost everyone has their own ideas about Bessler’s wheels and I just hope someone proves to be right and soon - I just need to know how he did it!

JC

Saturday, 13 March 2021

Documents re: Johann Bessler aka Orffyreus - Perpetual Motion

I’m currently getting ready to move house again so finding time to write my blogs and complete my work on Bessler’s wheel, is now too difficult.  Space to work is non-existent and although we expect to be out of this house by the end of March, I will then be staying with one of my daughters until we have chosen our next house.  This means no workshop until after we have moved!  But at least I will be able to continue my account of the codes and clues I’ve deciphered to date.

The comment facility is open to anyone so if you would like to make a comment please do so.  I may take a little longer to respond due to on-going house moving keeping me pre-occupied.

So in the mean time once more, here are the details about Johann Bessler aka Orffyreus and his amazing Perpetual Motion Machine.  Plus details of how to order his biography and his books which each include English translations.

The Legend of Bessler's wheel.

On 6th June, 1712, in Germany, Johann Bessler (also known by his pseudonym, Orffyreus) announced that after many years of failure, he had succeeded in designing and building a perpetual motion machine. For more than fourteen years he exhibited his machine and allowed people to thoroughly examine it. Following advice from the famous scientist, Gottfried Leibniz, who was able to examine the device, he devised a number of demonstrations and tests designed to prove the validity of his machine without giving away the secret of its design.

Karl the Landgrave of Hesse permitted Bessler to live, work and exhibit his machine at the prince's castle of Weissenstein. Karl was a man of unimpeachable reputation and he insisted on being allowed to verify the inventor's claims before he allowed Bessler to take up residence. This the inventor reluctantly agreed to and once he had examined the machine to his own satisfaction Karl authorised the publication of his approval of the machine. For several years Bessler was visited by numerous people of varying status, scientists, ministers and royalty. Several official examinations were carried out and each time the examiners concluded that the inventor's claims were genuine.

Over several years Karl aged and it was decided that the inventor should leave the castle and he was granted accommodation in the nearby town of Karlshafen. Despite the strong circumstantial evidence that his machine was genuine, Bessler failed to secure a sale and after more than thirty years he died in poverty. His death came after he fell from a windmill he had been commissioned to build. The windmill was an interesting design using a vertical axle which allowed it to benefit from winds from any directions. 

He had asked for a huge sum of money for the secret of his perpetual motion machine, £20,000 which was an amount only affordable by kings and princes, and although many were interested, none were prepared to agree to the terms of the deal. Bessler required that he be given the money and the buyer take the machine without viewing the internal workings. Those who sought to purchase the wheel, for that was the form the machine took, insisted that they see the secret mechanism before they parted with the money. Bessler feared that once the design was known the buyers could simply walk away knowing how to build his machine and he would get nothing for his trouble.


I became curious about the legend of Bessler’s Wheel, while still in my teens, and have spent most of my life researching the life of Johann Bessler (I’m now 76).  I obtained copies of all his books and had them translated into English and self-published them, in the hope that either myself or someone else might solve the secret and present it to the world in this time of pollution, global warming and increasingly limited energy resources.

Not long after I was able to read the English translations of his books, I became convinced that Bessler had embedded a number of clues in his books.  These took the form of hints in the text, but also in a number of drawings he published.  Subsequently I found suggestions by the author that studying his books would reveal more information about his wheel.


For some ideas about Bessler’s code why not visit my web sites atwww.theorffyreuscode.com or see my work on his “Declaration of Faith at http://www.orffyreus.net/

Also please view my video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5BWVKtpuzn0
It gives a brief account both the legend and some more detail about some of the codes.


The problem of obtaining a fair reward for all his hard work was anticipated by Bessler and he took extraordinary measures to ensure that his secret was safe, but he encoded all the information needed to reconstruct the machine in a small number of books that he published. He implied that he was prepared to die without selling the secret and that he believed that posthumus acknowledgement was preferable to being robbed of his secret while he yet lived.

It has recently become clear that Bessler had a huge knowledge of the history of codes and adopted several completely different ones to disguise information within his publications. I have made considerable advances in deciphering his codes and I am confident that I have the complete design.

Johann Bessler published three books, and digital copies of these with English translations may be obtained from the links to the right of this blog. In addition there is a copy of his unpublished document containing some 141 drawings - and my own account of Bessler’s life is also available from the links. It is called "Perpetual Motion; An Ancient Mystery Solved?

Bessler's three published books are entitled "Grundlicher Bericht", "Apologia Poetica" and "Das Triumphirende...". I have called Bessler's collection of 141 drawings Maschinen Tractate, but it was originally found in the form of a number of loosely collected drawings of perpetual motion designs. Many of these have handwritten notes attached and I have published the best English translation of them that I was able to get. Bessler never published these drawings but clearly intended to use them in his planned school for apprentices.

You can order copies of the books from my website at www.free-energy.co.uk
Or from the top of the right side panel under the heading ‘Bessler’s Books’.
There are also links lower down on the right side panel.

As I often say, the solution to this device is needed now.  Anything that might help cleanse the planet of pollution and help to reduce green house gas emissions, by providing a clean cheap alternative energy source should encouraged in its discovery and development to counter global warming.

JC 

Saturday, 6 March 2021

We Perpetual Motionists Dare to Dream the Impossible.

Why do we lay ourselves open to ridicule? We have been taught that what we seek is an impossible dream. Thousands of people have tried to find the answer to making a perpetual motion machine but failed ... apparently.  It’s seen potentially as a labour saving device - a boon to mankind.  Instinctively we all know that a weight driven wheel is possible, despite going against everything we’ve been taught. 

But what, in the end, is it that we seek? We would like to provide an alternative way of producing electricity that didn’t have to rely on the sun, the wind or the tides; that was clean and cheap - but is there more? Is it fame or fortune or the knowledge that we were all right and the experts, scientists, teachers, sceptics, cynics and critics were wrong.  Will we be heroes if we succeed? The pleasure to be derived from seeing the look of disbelief, the swift u-turns, the anger, the arguments of those who continued to reject the evidence and the eventual, albeit reluctant, acceptance of the evidence would be so overwhelming as to be beyond anything that has happened in our lives.

This would not be just for ourselves but also an acknowledgement of the efforts of all those thousands of people (I was going to say ‘men and women’, but there seems little evidence that women have ever taken an interest in pursuing  this apparent delusion) of people who over the centuries have sought to find the solution to this puzzle. Among those there have been some of celebrity status, but they have always been reluctant to express their willingness to admit their curiosity to find the answer to the perennial question, is a perpetual motion machine possible?

Those who deny Bessler’s wheel was genuine and those who explain why it was perfectly possible, are absolute opposites.  The traditional view is that such machines are closed systems and will quickly exhaust any energy stored within. You all know my view on the subject; since they can’t be closed systems because they would clearly be impossible, they must be open to an exterior source of energy. We start from the fact that we believe in Johann Bessler and his wheel, whereas the sceptics believe he was a fake.

Unless someone can prove Bessler and his machines were genuine there can never be a satisfactory conclusion to our search.  “Proof” exists and is widely taught that weight-driven perpetual motion machines cannot be made, but there is a saying, “you can’t prove a negative”, so does that mean you can’t prove that Bessler’s wheel was impossible?  On the other hand the reaction we all experience is the opposite, “prove it!”  That’s what they tell us, and they are right, no amount of theorising will convince anyone against three hundred years and more of determined denial.

They tell us that the proof that such machines are impossible is already out there and accepted so why do we continue to butt our heads against the wall of scepticism?  Because we prefer to dream the impossible.  There is an old saying written in various ways, which I learned long ago, which says, “the difficult we will do immediately; the impossible will take a little longer”. I think it sums up our approach to this puzzle.

JC


Monday, 1 March 2021

Johann Bessler’s Answer to the Energy Crisis?

It seems that there are still large numbers (the vast majority) of people out there who continue to believe, despite the strong circumstantial evidence to the contrary, that Johann Bessler’s perpetual motion machine was impossible and that he was obviously a criminal.  They cannot be blamed for taking this view, it has, after all, been hammered into all of us, relentlessly, that such a machine cannot work without an external energy source.  But I have no argument with that statement. Obviously without any energy source the wheel, as it was usually called, could not rotate and certainly not do any work.  But Bessler’s wheel rotated, lifted heavy weights and ran continuously for 54 days.  So it worked therefore it must have had an external energy source but what?  We have been told consistently that gravity is not a source of energy, but does that rule out its use an an enabler of Bessler’s wheel?

Since my self-appointed task here is to support Bessler’s claims I must explain why his machine did not break any laws of physics, because I remain convinced that it worked and the inventor told the truth.

Wind and tidal energy are routinely used to power electricity generators.  What do they have in common with gravity?  All three forces cause movement in  other objects. The motion of the wind and the tides is used to drive electricity generators.  Bessler said that the weights themselves were the actual perpetual motion.  Gravity affects mass and can move it,  so even though we are repeatedly told that gravity is not a source of energy.....it is, through the medium of weights reacting to the force of gravity.

This a constant thorn in the side of anyone trying to explain how gravity-enabled Bessler’s wheel worked. It is simple to explain but almost impossible to gain acceptance and yet in my opinion it is the correct explanation

Gravity causes the weights to fall. Dependent on the right configuration, the fallen weight will cause the wheel to rotate a little. If the fallen weight is moved by gravity, then gravity caused the wheel to rotate. It maybe an indirect energy source but it enables the wheel to turn.

The remaining problem, how to raise each weight again so it can fall again, was solved by Bessler, therefore despite the numerous attempts to find a configuration that have so far failed, we know he succeeded therefore so can we.  The solution is out there, waiting for us to find it.

JC





Monday, 22 February 2021

Documents About the Orffyreus Perpetual Motion Machine.

I’m currently getting ready to move house again so finding time to write my blogs and complete my work on Bessler’s wheel, is not so easy.  Space to work in is limited and although we expect to be out of this house by the end of March, I will then be staying with one of my daughters until we have chosen our next house.  This means no workshop until after we have moved!  In which case I’m trying to finish construction in the next four or five weeks!  So in the mean time here are the details about Bessler aka Orffyreus.......again.



  The Legend of Bessler's wheel.

On 6th June, 1712, in Germany, Johann Bessler (also known by his pseudonym, Orffyreus) announced that after many years of failure, he had succeeded in designing and building a perpetual motion machine. For more than fourteen years he exhibited his machine and allowed people to thoroughly examine it. Following advice from the famous scientist, Gottfried Leibniz, who was able to examine the device, he devised a number of demonstrations and tests designed to prove the validity of his machine without giving away the secret of its design.

Karl the Landgrave of Hesse permitted Bessler to live, work and exhibit his machine at the prince's castle of Weissenstein. Karl was a man of unimpeachable reputation and he insisted on being allowed to verify the inventor's claims before he allowed Bessler to take up residence. This the inventor reluctantly agreed to and once he had examined the machine to his own satisfaction Karl authorised the publication of his approval of the machine. For several years Bessler was visited by numerous people of varying status, scientists, ministers and royalty. Several official examinations were carried out and each time the examiners concluded that the inventor's claims were genuine.

Over several years Karl aged and it was decided that the inventor should leave the castle and he was granted accommodation in the nearby town of Karlshafen. Despite the strong circumstantial evidence that his machine was genuine, Bessler failed to secure a sale and after more than thirty years he died in poverty. His death came after he fell from a windmill he had been commissioned to build. The windmill was an interesting design using a vertical axle which allowed it to benefit from winds from any directions. 

He had asked for a huge sum of money for the secret of his perpetual motion machine, £20,000 which was an amount only affordable by kings and princes, and although many were interested, none were prepared to agree to the terms of the deal. Bessler required that he be given the money and the buyer take the machine without viewing the internal workings. Those who sought to purchase the wheel, for that was the form the machine took, insisted that they see the secret mechanism before they parted with the money. Bessler feared that once the design was known the buyers could simply walk away knowing how to build his machine and he would get nothing for his trouble.


I became curious about the legend of Bessler’s Wheel, while still in my teens, and have spent most of my life researching the life of Johann Bessler (I’m now 76).  I obtained copies of all his books and had them translated into English and self-published them, in the hope that either myself or someone else might solve the secret and present it to the world in this time of pollution, global warming and increasingly limited energy resources.

Not long after I was able to read the English translations of his books, I became convinced that Bessler had embedded a number of clues in his books.  These took the form of hints in the text, but also in a number of drawings he published.  Subsequently I found suggestions by the author that studying his books would reveal more information about his wheel.


For some ideas about Bessler’s code why not visit my web sites atwww.theorffyreuscode.com or see my work on his “Declaration of Faith” at http://www.orffyreus.net/

Also please view my video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5BWVKtpuzn0
It gives a brief account both the legend and some more detail about some of the codes.


The problem of obtaining a fair reward for all his hard work was anticipated by Bessler and he took extraordinary measures to ensure that his secret was safe, but he encoded all the information needed to reconstruct the machine in a small number of books that he published. He implied that he was prepared to die without selling the secret and that he believed that posthumus acknowledgement was preferable to being robbed of his secret while he yet lived.

It has recently become clear that Bessler had a huge knowledge of the history of codes and adopted several completely different ones to disguise information within his publications. I have made considerable advances in deciphering his codes and I am confident that I have the complete design.

Johann Bessler published three books, and digital copies of these with English translations may be obtained from the links to the right of this blog. In addition there is a copy of his unpublished document containing some 141 drawings - and my own account of Bessler’s life is also available from the links. It is called "Perpetual Motion; An Ancient Mystery Solved?

Bessler's three published books are entitled "Grundlicher Bericht", "Apologia Poetica" and "Das Triumphirende...". I have called Bessler's collection of 141 drawings Maschinen Tractate, but it was originally found in the form of a number of loosely collected drawings of perpetual motion designs. Many of these have handwritten notes attached and I have published the best English translation of them that I was able to get. Bessler never published these drawings but clearly intended to do so at some point.

You can order copies of the books from my website at www.free-energy.co.uk
Or from the top of the right side panel under the heading ‘Bessler’s Books’.
There are also links lower down on the right side panel.

As I often say, the solution to this device is needed now.  Anything that might help cleanse the planet of pollution, green house gas emissions, by providing clean cheap alternative energy sources should encouraged in its discovery and development to counter global warming.

JC 

Thursday, 18 February 2021

Johann Bessler aka Orffyreus and Numerology

There has been much written about Johann Bessler and how he may have used numerology.  I haven’t found any evidence that he did use it, although he may have been more interested in gematria.

He used alphanumerics to provide clues but they only led to further encoded clues. To get his pseudonym, Orffyreus, derived from his name Bessler, he used albam, a simple alphabetic substitution cipher originally used by Hebrew scribes to disguise the names of certain people they mentioned in their writings. Later it was known as the Caesar shift cipher used by the Romans. Today we refer to it as ROT13

He also used numbers in his drawings to achieve a certain total which would reveal a geometric design. He was fascinated by chronograms and produced numerous examples.  In an ordinary sentence he used certain Roman numerals which could be obtained from letters of the alphabet, to provide dates.

He used other codes but nowhere to my knowledge does he even hint at numerology. I see that , ‘the English word numerology is of recent origin, coming into existence around 1910 A.D. (dictionary.com). It is a combination of the Latin word "numerus," meaning numbers, and the ending "logy," which is used to designate the study or science of something. The definition of numerology, therefore, is the general study of numbers.”

I looked briefly into numerology and although it is a popular among some people it is generally regarded as a superstition. This is one reference among many that read,

Actually the numerology I use is based on origins of the contemplations of philosopher Pythagoras back in ancient Greece. He was not just a mathematician, but looked at what was behind numbers. The study of the vibration and effect of numbers is in the Bible (like in the Kabbalah), and pondered by philosophers, theologians and scientists way back in time. The actual onset of modern numerology, where each number has a certain meaning and the letters of the alphabet is assigned to a certain number, has most probably become standardized into a system in mid 1800s. Pythagoras and Chaldean methods are the most popular systems.”

I’m not expressing an opinion on numerology, just that I remain sceptical, but I would be delighted to be provided with proof of its efficacy. This would be nigh on impossible because all results could be coincidental. The interpretation of names, dates of birth and astrology are all in the same grouping along with religious belief systems - a matter of personal conviction.

So if modern numerology only became established in the mid 1800s it seems unlikely that Bessler would have used it. Gematria, on the other hand seems a more likely system used by Bessler. According to Wikipedia, ‘ an alphanumeric code  of assigning a numerical value to a name, word or phrase based on its letters. A single word can yield multiple values depending on the cipher used.’.

It is clear that Bessler was familiar with the albam/atbash system used by the Hebrews and therefore other alternative but similar systems, too complex to deal with here but certainly studied by Bessler, in my opinion. But even acknowledging his personal knowledge of such systems, there seems little of value in deciphering his works to try to get additional meanings from them. Such techniques reveal themselves as nonsensical words.

There is one place where such elaborate methods might hide meaningful information and that is within the ‘Declaration of Faith’, in Apologia Poetica, chapter 55. There he presents about 141 Bible verse references with differing abbreviations, and quotations for verses a few of 
which seem not be found. For more information about my own attempts to decipher its hidden meaning visit my web site at http://www.orffyreus.net/

I think that numbering his fingers etc, in aid of a numerological interpretation is a road to nowhere.  The gesture itself may be designed to send a message, but perhaps it was just another example of Bessler’s delight in adding mystification to engender curiosity in the genuinely encoded material.

JC

Friday, 12 February 2021

The Secret Message in Johann Bessler’s Hand

There are other idiosyncrasies to examine in Bessler’s portraits besides the ones I have pointed out on my website at  theorffyreuscode.com  but one I haven’t discussed before concerns the strangeness of Bessler’s hand gesture.  In the portrait below, notice the left hand, ringed in red. His little finger seems to be unusually separated from the next one, the ring finger.  In fact it looks almost as if it was originally placed next to the ring finger but then altered to appear in its current position or if you prefer, the two middle fingers are closer together than the two on either side.

There are several web sites explaining the significance of this feature which appears in a lot of Renaissance paintings. Three paintings picked at random below, demonstrate the point, but what does the gesture signify? 

During the Renaissance period, hands were as important a focus of attention as the face was, because they were the only other visible area of the body. Hence, representation of the position of the hands became a decorative element that was almost as important as the face. Thus, given its high visibility, hand gestures in portraits and paintings have been one of the most effective ways of conveying secrets, codes and messages.

It seems that there are two possible interpretation of this gesture.  First there is Freemasonry or Masonic membership and rank. Apparently the gesture was a secret sign used to recognize masonic followers. The enigmatic posture of the hand has fascinated a lot of scholars of hidden societies, who believe that the unusual splayed fingers represents the letter M, which indicated not only Masonic membership and rank, but also possession of occult secrets. That seems to fit with what we suspect about Bessler, but there is another possibility.


It was Ignacio de Loyola’s gesture for the atonement of sins 

According to this hypothesis, the gesture was a sign with a religious meaning used by Jesuits. San Ignacio de Loyola founded the Jesuits’ Order in 1541 and became its first Superior General. The Saint used to recommend a gesture for believers,  ‘each time one falls into sin, in laying the hand on the breast whilst inciting one’s inner self to grief.’ 

 

There are many more examples of this particular hand. signal in the paintings of that era, but their meaning, which must have been fairly widely understood still at the time, seems to have escaped modern interpretation. The fact that Johann Bessler adopted it in his portrait must indicate that he at least had some understanding of its importance and perhaps we can make some educated guesses given our knowledge of his particular circumstances. Firstly we know that he spent some time in Prague in the company of a Jesuit priest and a Rabbi. While he was there he claimed to have been taught about ‘the book of nature’ and ‘the language of angels’.  In 1623 Galileo crafted a famous metaphor that is still often cited by scientists. ‘Nature’, he wrote, ‘is a book written in “the language of mathematics”. If we cannot understand that language, we will be doomed to wander about as if “in a dark labyrinth”’.
 It is also known as the ‘language of  Enoch’.  Enochian is an occult or angelic language that was recorded in the private journals of John Dee and his colleague Edward Kelley in late 16th-century England. Dee was a man of science-turned-magic seeker, and Kelley was a spirit medium who worked with Dee in his magical investigations. The men claimed that the mystical language was revealed to them by the Enochian angels. 
It is also referred to as Celestial Speech, Angelical, The First Language of God and Adam, because they believed it was the language first used by Adam and Eve - perhaps even the language God used to speak everything into being. They were both active in Prague before Bessler’s time.

Much of the above is too speculative to make any firm conclusions but I think we can say with some certainty that Bessler included the gesture in order to convey some message to those who could  understand it.  

Perhaps someone may be able to provide more certainty either about its wide use, or Bessler’s particular intentions.

JC


Sunday, 7 February 2021

The Legend of Bessler’s Perpetual Motion Machine



Please feel free to comment if you wish and I will try to check back daily. So here it is again, 


  The Legend of Bessler's wheel.

On 6th June, 1712, in Germany, Johann Bessler (also known by his pseudonym, Orffyreus) announced that after many years of failure, he had succeeded in designing and building a perpetual motion machine. For more than fourteen years he exhibited his machine and allowed people to thoroughly examine it. Following advice from the famous scientist, Gottfried Leibniz, who was able to examine the device, he devised a number of demonstrations and tests designed to prove the validity of his machine without giving away the secret of its design.


Karl the Landgrave of Hesse permitted Bessler to live, work and exhibit his machine at the prince's castle of Weissenstein. Karl was a man of unimpeachable reputation and he insisted on being allowed to verify the inventor's claims before he allowed Bessler to take up residence. This the inventor reluctantly agreed to and once he had examined the machine to his own satisfaction Karl authorised the publication of his approval of the machine. For several years Bessler was visited by numerous people of varying status, scientists, ministers and royalty. Several official examinations were carried out and each time the examiners concluded that the inventor's claims were genuine.


Over several years Karl aged and it was decided that the inventor should leave the castle and he was granted accommodation in the nearby town of Karlshafen. Despite the strong circumstantial evidence that his machine was genuine, Bessler failed to secure a sale and after more than thirty years he died in poverty. His death came after he fell from a windmill he had been commissioned to build. The windmill was an interesting design using a vertical axle which allowed it to benefit from winds from any directions. 


He had asked for a huge sum of money for the secret of his perpetual motion machine, £20,000 which was an amount only affordable by kings and princes, and although many were interested, none were prepared to agree to the terms of the deal. Bessler required that he be given the money and the buyer take the machine without viewing the internal workings. Those who sought to purchase the wheel, for that was the form the machine took, insisted that they see the secret mechanism before they parted with the money. Bessler feared that once the design was known the buyers could simply walk away knowing how to build his machine and he would get nothing for his trouble.


I became curious about the legend of Bessler’s Wheel, while still in my teens, and have spent most of my life researching the life of Johann Bessler (I’m now 75). I obtained copies of all his books and had them translated into English and self-published them, in the hope that either myself or someone else might solve the secret and present it to the world in this time of pollution, global warming and increasingly limited energy resources.

Not long after I was able to read the English translations of his books, I became convinced that Bessler had embedded a number of clues in his books.  These took the form of hints in the text, but also in a number of drawings he published.  Subsequently I found suggestions by the author that studying his books would reveal more information about his wheel.


For some ideas about Bessler’s code why not visit my web sites atwww.theorffyreuscode.com or see my work on his “Declaration of Faith” at http://www.orffyreus.net/

Also please view my video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5BWVKtpuzn0
It gives a brief account both the legend and some more detail about some of the codes.


The problem of obtaining a fair reward for all his hard work was anticipated by Bessler and he took extraordinary measures to ensure that his secret was safe, but he encoded all the information needed to reconstruct the machine in a small number of books that he published. He implied that he was prepared to die without selling the secret and that he believed that posthumus acknowledgement was preferable to being robbed of his secret while he yet lived.

It has recently become clear that Bessler had a huge knowledge of the history of codes and adopted several completely different ones to disguise information within his publications. I have made considerable advances in deciphering his codes and I am confident that I have the complete design.

Johann Bessler published three books, and digital copies of these with English translations may be obtained from the links to the right of this blog. In addition there is a copy of his unpublished document containing some 141 drawings - and my own account of Bessler’s life is also available from the links. It is called "Perpetual Motion; An Ancient Mystery Solved?

Bessler's three published books are entitled "Grundlicher Bericht", "Apologia Poetica" and "Das Triumphirende...". I have called Bessler's collection of 141 drawings Maschinen Tractate, but it was originally found in the form of a number of loosely collected drawings of perpetual motion designs. Many of these have handwritten notes attached and I have published the best English translation of them that I was able to get. Bessler never published these drawings but clearly intended to do so at some point.

As I often say, the solution to this device is needed now.  Anything that might help cleanse the planet of pollution, green house gas emissions, by providing clean cheap alternative energy sources should encouraged in its discovery and development to counter global warming.

JC 

Reviewing the Power of Bessler’s Perpetual Motion Machine

Many people have calculated the potential power of Bessler’s wheel and concluded that it wouldn’t amount to much, however I’m not convinced ...