Friday 28 May 2021

Some Time for Me to Think and Write and Plan.

My apologies to my many readers over the lack of comments usually available on this blog.  I’ve decided to remove the comments facility for two reasons.  Firstly I’m in the middle of moving house, currently staying with one of my daughters who lives nearby while we search for our next house.  My time is limited for writing blogs and responding to comments and as I have no workshop I’m unable to continue working on my own wheel project.  I have a plan, a design, a concept - call it what you will - but lack of facilities and space prevents me working on it.  I can’t wait to get back to work and hopefully finish it, but I’m really too busy just now.

The other reason for stopping the comments feature is due to a number of comments berating me for my stance on a book published several months ago.  I find the speculation about Bessler described in the book, marginally offensive because of a large number inaccuracies presented as facts, but mainly worrying as the author purports to have found a number of clues for which their existence is visible almost exclusively to himself.  He then interprets these ‘clues’ and produces a design which he claims is the solution to Bessler’s wheel.  This ‘solution’ bears no resemblance to the little we know about Bessler’s wheel, being anything but the simple design described by the only other person to view the interior.  This is not just my opinion, but common to most people who’ve read the book. I fear that such claims may dissuade others from attempting to solve this age-old problem, believing mistakenly that the solution has been found - it hasn’t.  I have been receiving a lot of emails requesting me to publish corrections to the claims made in the book. 

But this is not something I have the time nor inclination to do. But I am taking this opportunity to continue  to complete my book which details all the real clues I have found and how they relate to Bessler’s wheel.  These clues are simple and obvious once they are pointed out.  Once my book becomes available it will become clear that these clues totally negate those described by the other author.

Once I have found our new house and have settled, the blog will return complete with the comments feature switched on.  I hope to publish some of the clues I have found which will hopefully set the record straight and provide legitimate details of Bessler’s hints and clues, where they are and what they mean.


Saturday 22 May 2021

Documents re: Johann Bessler aka Orffyreus - Perpetual Motion.

 I’m currently getting ready to move house again so finding time to write my blogs and complete my work on Bessler’s wheel, is now too difficult.  Space to work is non-existent and I am staying with one of my daughters until we have chosen our next house.  This means no workshop until after we have moved!  But at least I will be able to continue my account of the codes and clues I’ve deciphered to date.

So in the mean time once more, here are the details about Johann Bessler aka Orffyreus and his amazing Perpetual Motion Machine.  Plus details of how to order his biography and his books which each include English translations.

The Legend of Bessler's wheel.

On 6th June, 1712, in Germany, Johann Bessler (also known by his pseudonym, Orffyreus) announced that after many years of failure, he had succeeded in designing and building a perpetual motion machine. For more than fourteen years he exhibited his machine and allowed people to thoroughly examine it. Following advice from the famous scientist, Gottfried Leibniz, who was able to examine the device, he devised a number of demonstrations and tests designed to prove the validity of his machine without giving away the secret of its design.

Karl the Landgrave of Hesse permitted Bessler to live, work and exhibit his machine at the prince's castle of Weissenstein. Karl was a man of unimpeachable reputation and he insisted on being allowed to verify the inventor's claims before he allowed Bessler to take up residence. This the inventor reluctantly agreed to and once he had examined the machine to his own satisfaction Karl authorised the publication of his approval of the machine. For several years Bessler was visited by numerous people of varying status, scientists, ministers and royalty. Several official examinations were carried out and each time the examiners concluded that the inventor's claims were genuine.

Over several years Karl aged and it was decided that the inventor should leave the castle and he was granted accommodation in the nearby town of Karlshafen. Despite the strong circumstantial evidence that his machine was genuine, Bessler failed to secure a sale and after more than thirty years he died in poverty. His death came after he fell from a windmill he had been commissioned to build. The windmill was an interesting design using a vertical axle which allowed it to benefit from winds from any directions. 

He had asked for a huge sum of money for the secret of his perpetual motion machine, £20,000 which was an amount only affordable by kings and princes, and although many were interested, none were prepared to agree to the terms of the deal. Bessler required that he be given the money and the buyer take the machine without viewing the internal workings. Those who sought to purchase the wheel, for that was the form the machine took, insisted that they see the secret mechanism before they parted with the money. Bessler feared that once the design was known the buyers could simply walk away knowing how to build his machine and he would get nothing for his trouble.

I became curious about the legend of Bessler’s Wheel, while still in my teens, and have spent most of my life researching the life of Johann Bessler (I’m now 76).  I obtained copies of all his books and had them translated into English and self-published them, in the hope that either myself or someone else might solve the secret and present it to the world in this time of pollution, global warming and increasingly limited energy resources.

Not long after I was able to read the English translations of his books, I became convinced that Bessler had embedded a number of clues in his books.  These took the form of hints in the text, but also in a number of drawings he published.  Subsequently I found suggestions by the author that studying his books would reveal more information about his wheel.

For some ideas about Bessler’s code why not visit my web sites or see my work on his “Declaration of Faith at

Also please view my video at
It gives a brief account both the legend and some more detail about some of the codes.

The problem of obtaining a fair reward for all his hard work was anticipated by Bessler and he took extraordinary measures to ensure that his secret was safe, but he encoded all the information needed to reconstruct the machine in a small number of books that he published. He implied that he was prepared to die without selling the secret and that he believed that posthumus acknowledgement was preferable to being robbed of his secret while he yet lived.

It has recently become clear that Bessler had a huge knowledge of the history of codes and adopted several completely different ones to disguise information within his publications. I have made considerable advances in deciphering his codes and I am confident that I have the complete design.

Johann Bessler published three books, and digital copies of these with English translations may be obtained from the links to the right of this blog. In addition there is a copy of his unpublished document containing some 141 drawings - and my own account of Bessler’s life is also available from the links. It is called "Perpetual Motion; An Ancient Mystery Solved?

Bessler's three published books are entitled "Grundlicher Bericht", "Apologia Poetica" and "Das Triumphirende...". I have called Bessler's collection of 141 drawings Maschinen Tractate, but it was originally found in the form of a number of loosely collected drawings of perpetual motion designs. Many of these have handwritten notes attached and I have published the best English translation of them that I was able to get. Bessler never published these drawings but clearly intended to use them in his planned school for apprentices.

You can order copies of the books from my website at
Or from the top of the right side panel under the heading ‘Bessler’s Books’.
There are also links lower down on the right side panel.

As I often say, the solution to this device is needed now.  Anything that might help cleanse the planet of pollution and help to reduce green house gas emissions, by providing a clean cheap alternative energy source should encouraged in its discovery and development to counter global warming.


Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no hope at all.”                                                

Dale Carnegie

Thursday 13 May 2021

Johann Bessler’s Hidden Codes - Golden Ratio (phi) and MT 137

This blog is based on a draft version I wrote a couple of years ago and I’ve added a few illustrations to help my explanations.  It’s more of an update on work I’ve done but not all of it has been shared before.  I hope it’s of interest.

The presence of a pentagram in some of Bessler’s drawings is well established and it is generally recognised that it is at least an indication of Bessler’s intention to point out at every opportunity his fascination with the number five.  See above for an example of the pentagram in a Bessler illustration.  His frequent use of alphanumeric and the Hebrew atbash and albam codes also reflect this apparent obsession.

The angles in the pentagram are exclusively multiples of the number 18; thus the numbers are 18, 36, 54, 72, 90 and 108 - plus the number 5.  With the the benefit of his various codes, Bessler could manipulate the number 5 as an ‘E’, the fifth letter of the alphabet, or as an atbash cipher, the letter ‘R’, which in turn becomes the number 18.  The letter ‘R’ being the 18th letter of the alphabet chimes nicely with the smallest pentagram number.  This applies to all the pentagram numbers Bessler used.

The Golden Ratio in Merseburg Wheel - 24 squares and 24 rectangles, 24 numbers.

The golden ratio is embedded within the construction of the pentagram and it is also present in all of Bessler’s publications, but one particular place where it seems to be absent is Bessler’s Maschinen Tractate, in particular MT 137.  The illustration is a dodecagram, with no clues as to its role in the MT - it almost looks like an afterthought, with no discernible mechanical design or purpose.

MT 137

My initial speculation which, I still firmly believe is correct, is that MT 137 illustrates something which is used by musicians today. Johann David Heinichen, 1683-1729, a German musician, introduced the concept known as the ‘circles of fifths’ in 1711 (he called it Quintenzirkel). He was born, raised and got married in Weissenfels, the same place which Bessler moved to after Draschwitz, and close to Obergreisslau. Despite his interest in music, Heinichen practiced law in Weissenfels until 1709. However, he maintained his interest in music and was at the samne time composing operas. In 1710, he published the first edition of his major treatise on the theory of music (Thoroughbass). This contained his theory of circle of fifths.

A Modern version Heinichen’s circle of fifths.

Bessler lived in Weissenfels in 1714 and had a history of building organs. In 1717 Heinichen became a colleague of Johann Sebastian Bach at the court of Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen, then went on to be Kapellmeister to the Elector of Saxony. In 1721, Heinichen married in Weissenfels. In between these events his success attracted the attention of Duke Moritz Wilhelm who appointed him to be court composer at Zeitz. As many who have read my biography about Bessler will know, Moritz Wilhelm’s court was home to many learned men who persuaded the great Leibniz to investigate Bessler’s claims. There is a lot hof correspondence about Bessler between those members of the Court at Zeitz.

So it seems highly likely although not proven, that MT 137 represents Heinrich’s ‘circle of fifths’. This fits in with Bessler’s obsession with the number 5. The ‘Circle of Fifths’ is an easy way to find out which key a song is in. It tells you how many sharps or flats are in a given key. It is called the ‘Circle of Fifths’ because as you go clockwise, you go up a fifth. Even though I don’t claim to know much about musical theory I understand that you start on, say middle C, then count round the edge of the circle five places which brings you to F. This same technique is applied for any note.

However there is more to MT 137 than meets the eye.  Recently I discovered the reason for MT 137’s inclusion in MT and also why it was placed where it was. First, remember that Bessler had studied clocks and was able to repair them, also I have posted information here previously, about the presence of a hidden clock in two of  Bessler’s drawings.  Next note that MT 137 is a dodecagram, in other words it has twelve points on the circumference not unlike a clock.

So far then we have a clock, a circle of fifths and a possibly missing phi, or golden ratio.  No where have I found any reference to phi being an integral part of the dodecagram and yet… MT 137 is a circle of 360 degrees.  The number for Phi is about 1.618.  If we divide 360 by 1.618 we get 137.5 degrees and 222.5 degrees.  If you look at a clock face and you have the hour hand at twelve o’clock and the minute hand at five o’clock, the angle between them is 137.5 degrees, and the larger angle is 222.5 degrees. 

Examples below of when the angle between the hands is 137.5 and 12.25. There are, in total 44  golden moments, that is, times when the angle between the hands of the clock equals the golden angle 137.5.

I believe that Bessler named and placed MT 137 in this way hoping that someone would make the connection between the circle, phi and the pentagrams.  The number 137, the dodecagram and the golden ratio are too well represented and the connections too obvious once you see them, to be due to chance.

360 divided by 1.618 = 222.5 and 360 - 222.5 = 137.5

I include one more illustration showing the twelve to five line in Bessler’s MT 137 as it would be used in the circle of fifths.  C to F in Heinrich’s version of his circle of fifths.

To recap, MT 137 may represent the musical circle of fifths. 

It is labelled 137 to point to the potential inclusion of the calculation of the 360 degrees of a circle divided by 1.618 which means MT 137 also includes the golden ratio.

In the dodecagram the circle of fifths matches at least one of the golden moments and maybe more than one with twelve o’clock to five o’clock line.

NB. I should point out that in the illustration of the clock showing the time as twelve twenty-five, to demonstrate the two golden angles, the hour hand at twelve would in reality be nearly half way to the next hour  i.e., closer to the one o’clock point in order to fulfil the angle of 137.5.  This point should be remembered in all calculations.  The other pictures are showing the hand positions more accurately. My bad illustration!

PS - I forgot to say that the 24 numbers used in the Merseburg wheel drawing above, plus the 24 squares plus the 24 rectangles adds up to 72 which is the fifth of pentagram, 72 x 5 = 360.


I thought this aphorism most appropriate to our cause.

Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no hope at all.”                                                

Dale Carnegie

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