## Saturday 26 December 2015

### HAPPY NEW YEAR

SUCCESS THROUGH INTUITION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN 2016

Mathematics in our world is a vital tool for invention but Michael Faraday had no use for it, in fact he believed that the subject could actually be a hindrance to successful experimentation. He worked intuitively and experimented with new ideas until he had exhausted all possibilities.

I have little use for maths in my search for a solution to Bessler's wheel.  I read with a glazed expression the discussions about varous forces and formulae and I continue with my experimentation.  I leave aside simulation and animation, possibly because I am not au fait with much of it, but also for me it would be too easy to overlook something that only becomes apparent when you have the parts in your hands. Handling parts, moving them manually, altering the range of movement, moving and adjusting the positions and sizes of the weights - all of these things help to visualise the potential new configurations that would not be visible in simulations if only because all of these things have to be fed into the computer to see what happens.

That is why I ignore statements which deride our efforts here.  It has always seemed to me that gravity holds the answer to Bessler's wheel, but I learned long ago that I was not supposed to regard gravity as an energy source and I always try to maintain that stance in public, but actually I still think of it as an energy source and that gives me an advantage over all those people who persist in looking for another energy source.

Bessler clearly (in my opinion) took the same view and that is why he succeeded where everyone else failed.  I know that in 2016 the solution to Bessler's wheel will be published.

And here's another thing - people have questioned whether planet earth completely covered in gravity-driven wheels would have some detrimental effect on us, the earth or some other facet of our lives.  To me the answer is simple; no it won't have any detectable effect.

Gravity is basically a non-contact force so any collisions resulting from its attraction are secondary, it has simply been the vehicle in which mass rides.  In a car crash we don't blame the car engine for driving us at speed into a wall and causing terrible damage.  The resultant damage is simply the effect of stopping suddenly.  If we hadn't hit a wall, the work being done by the speeding engine would have continued onwards as before.  So when a weight falls, regardless of whether we use the fall to raise another weight or rotate the wheel  a little, gravity does its thing in making the weight fall and then continues on its merry way looking for something else to make fall.

Bessler’s wheel was driven by the reaction of falling weights to the force of gravity. No-one can argue that the energy is not free to us even if at some nano level it is paid for throughout the universe. I'm satisfied that nothing we do on earth here using gravity as our energy source can effect anywhere in the universe by any detectable means over any period of time you care to consider.

So onwards with enthusiasm, optimism and hope!

JC

## Monday 14 December 2015

### Bessler's Wheel and Climate Change

A deal to attempt to limit the rise in global temperatures to less than 2C has been agreed at the climate change summit in Paris after two weeks of intense negotiations. The pact is the first to commit all countries to cut carbon emissions, and nearly 200 countries took part, and it would come into being in 2020.

On the face of it exciting and encouraging news, but of course it's full of holes and let outs.  I don't need to go into these nor list the major states which were, understandably, reluctant to sign up to a condition that they feel could hamper economic growth and development.

Although I remain unconvinced that this is a man-made problem and not a natural turn of events, I accept that the pollution caused by the current fossil fuel consumption is undoubtedly a cause for concern.  So the search is intensified to find an alternative source of energy and one that could be applied anywhere on or in the planet earth.

Below, smog in Beijing caused by industrial pollution.

On my way to Rome a couple of years ago, I had to change planes at Amsterdam and a plane came in from Beijing.  The passengers queued to catch an onward flight and everyone of them wore the smog masks as you see above.  I asked one of them why and he simply said, "we must".  I told him he was OK here in Europe and didn't need to keep them on and he just smiled and shook his head.

I saw an interview with Anote Tong this week, who is the President of Kiribati, an island republic in the Central Pacific, comprising 33 coral atolls stretching along the equator. It is one of the first countries in danger of becoming uninhabitable owing to climate change.  Because atolls are naturally low-lying, and have a high ratio of coastline to land area, they are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise and storm surges.

President Tong's message was that we should not be thinking of this is a problem for the future, his country is feeling the first effects of global warming now. With most of its land only a few feet above sea level, Kiribati has already seen growing damage from storms and flooding. Some of the nation's uninhabited islets have even vanished beneath the Pacific.  Global warming threatens to render Kiribati unliveable well before it is completely submerged. If global warming continues at today's rates, rising ocean waters may shrink Kiribati's land area, increase storm damage, and threaten its freshwater reserves.   He asks that everyone should be concerned and seek any kind of alternative energy source.  Solar panels and wind turbines are all very well but they cannot hope to replace fossil fuels as an energy source, we need something more basic, more universally usable and available in the very, very near future.

I know that we still have an enormous vertical cliff to climb to convince the world at large that Bessler's wheel did work and perhaps it might ultimately hold the key to reducing industrial pollution.... and maybe not, but surely it's worth trying. The wheel must be proven to work first, then it's up to the design-engineers to find ways of upscaling the basic model.  Bessler said bigger and more powerful wheels could be made and we have no evidence that he would have misled us about that, nor can I think of why he would have done that.  We must take him at his word.

How utterly amazing would it be to successfully reconstruct Bessler's wheel and then find that the entire world had taken the technology and developed it and found that this 300 year old machine had solved the problems of the 21st century!

JC

## Tuesday 8 December 2015

### Gravity - Ultimate Source of Energy for a GravityWheel.

It's a curious thing, that energy cannot be drawn from gravity; it feels instinctively wrong.   Yes, I know, gravity is not an energy source but intuitively it seems plausible. Sir Isaac Newton's view of gravity provided the same basic model that we accept today; that gravity is a force which tries to pull two objects toward each other.  Anything which has mass also has a gravitational pull. The more massive an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull is. Earth's gravity is what keeps you on the ground and what causes objects to fall.

A force can push or a pull, and is capable of moving objects of mass,  but does that mean it's consuming energy?  Sometimes, provided there is potential energy to consume. For instance, holding a rope taut is using force. Pulling something towards you with a rope is using energy.  If you're standing on the surface of the Earth, energy is not being spent to keep you from falling to the ground, even though a force is pressing upon you.  It's only when the force moves an object of mass that energy is consumed.  So force is independent of work because it's possible to have forces that do no work.

Note - when I say that energy is consumed I do not, of course suggest that it has gone, but merely changed to another form of energy, as we all know, energy cannot be created nor destroyed.

So force does consume energy when it makes something move.  But that energy has to be there first before the force can use it.  There is a law of conservation of energy but there is no law of conservation of force.  The force is always with you - on earth anyway!  In gravity's case without any potential energy there can be no energy expenditure, so how do we get potential energy?  We do some work against gravity, and that energy is stored as potential energy.  Lift a weight and you have the potential energy to drop it.

But...in the case of Bessler's wheel, in order to continually rotate, it would require a continual supply of energy from falling weights.  Conventional thinking dictates that a gravity wheel will never have a continual supply of energy because any energy gained by the falling weight on the one side of the wheel is cancelled out by returning the weight to its original height on the other side of the wheel.

That is more or less where we have been for the last three hundred years - how to get the weights back up again without extra energy being required?  Despite their assurances that we are all ignorant of the basic laws of physics or crazy lunatics - we continue to believe in Bessler.  For me, it's a gut feeling, an instinct coupled with strong circumstantial; I know Bessler's wheel is possible.  But 'knowing' is not enough, it must be proved and the only way is with a physical proof of principle wheel.

There is a source of continuous power -  and on earth that source is gravity.  Now I know it isn't the actual energy source but it is so close to being just that that I'm going to say it is.  And I'll tell you why?  It is really a matter of semantics.

Semantics -  the branch of linguistics and logic concerned with meaning. It includes interpretation and common usage and accepted norms.  So... the application of gravity to the weights drives the rotation of the wheel.

To put it another way, without the force of gravity the weights would just float where ever you placed them. You need the driving force of gravity to move the weights, without which you've got nothing!  In my opinion therefore gravity ultimately provides the energy, even though there is no apparent depletion of energy levels.  I say 'apparent', because gravity obtains its force from the universe and all the objects of mass within it, interacting with each other.  We have no precise information about gravity so we must simply accept that for us it is a permanent feature of our world.

We know that gravity attracts mass. We also know that the mass has to be free to move in the direction of the force of gravity rather than against it and is not fixed in position.  In other words it can fall.  If it can fall it has potential energy which is changed into kinetic energy.

1) We know that Bessler's wheel used weights;

2) We know that the wheel required the repeated 'loading' of potential energy by repeated lifting and returning of the weights to their pre-fall position;

3) We know that gravity used that potential energy to make the weights fall

4) We know that Bessler's wheel worked

5) Thus the wheel was driven by gravity.

Consider this.  Bessler's first two wheels began to turn spontaneously as soon as the brake was released.  This suggests that the weight which was about to fall, was ready to do so, or indeed had already fallen.  This would lead to the immediate commencement of rotation.   The next weight would then begin its own action, falling and continuing the motion of the turning wheel.  According to conventional thinking at this point or near it, any energy gained by the falling weight on the one side of the wheel is cancelled out by returning the weight to its original height on the other side of the wheel.  But this only applies if you cannot engineer a reduced effect on the ascending side - something everyone of us knows and believes Bessler achieved.

Since it is so obvious to all of us that reducing the effect of the weights on the ascending side of the wheel will lead to continuing rotation, why do the experts continue to deny its possibility?  We know Bessler did it, ergo it is possible, and all those teachers who believed what they were taught..... are wrong.

Now all we have to do is discover how Bessler was able to lift the weights back to their former position without requiring extra energy from outside the wheel.  Simple.

JC

## Tuesday 1 December 2015

### Johann Bessler, the Freemasons and Religion.

Some people have suggested that Bessler was a member of the Freemasons, but I doubt it.

John Theophilus Desaguliers (12 March 1683 – 29 February 1744) was a French-born British natural philosopher, clergyman, engineer and freemason who was elected to the Royal Society in 1714 as experimental assistant to Isaac Newton.   He is familiar to us as the recipient of Fischer von Erlach's letter describing Bessler's wheel, and for his public lectures decrying the possibility of a perpetual motion machine as constructed by Johann Bessler.

As a Freemason, Desaguliers was responsible for the establishment of the first Grand Lodge formed in London in 1717 and served as their third Grand Master in 1719 and was later three times Deputy Grand Master. He helped James Anderson draw up the rules in the "Constitutions of the Freemasons", published in 1723, and he was active in the establishment of a Masonic charity.

During a lecture trip to the Netherlands in 1731 Desaguliers initiated into Freemasonry Francis, Duke of Lorraine (1708 – 65) who later became Holy Roman Emperor. Desaguliers also presided when Frederick, Prince of Wales, became a Freemason in 1737, and he additionally became a chaplain to the Prince.  But there is no record of him approaching Karl the Landgrave, with the intention of initiating him into the brotherhood, and anyway the dates do not support such a conjecture.

Obviously Karl the Landgrave was not involved in Free-masonry, although his grandson  Prince Karl, the brother of Wilhelm I of Hessen-Kassel was a Grand Master. Both were the sons of Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel, from his wife, Mary of Hanover, Princess of Great Britain, daughter of George II King of England.  His grandson, also named Karl, was the Freemason, not Karl the Landgrave; this has led to the confusion over the Landgrave's alleged membership of this organisation.  This was in the 1780s, some forty years after Bessler's death.

The point is that neither Bessler nor his patron, Karl the Landgrave were concerned in any way with the Freemasons.

However Bessler did spend time with a Jesuit priest and a Jewish Rabbi in the ancient city of Prague. There he learned something about Egyptian hieroglyphics, the Book of Nature and the Language of Angels. These subjects have been difficult to identify, but John Dee and his sidekick, Edward Kelley wrote a book supposedly in the language of angels, Enochian, which appears to be a coded document, but it has proved impossible to decipher, that is if it was intended to be.  Kelley met an untimely end in Prague when his promise to turn straw into gold failed and he was imprisoned and died a prisoner in late 1597/early 1598 of injuries received while attempting to escape.

What might Bessler have learned in Prague?  My personal belief is that he learned something of the religious beliefs of both the Rabbi and the Jesuit priest.  He also learned about encoding messages which the Rabbi and the priest used in their communications with each other.  The chronogram was a common feature on building and epitaphs in Germany of that period and popular also among the Jews and Romans in both times past and during the early 18th century.  Clearly this subject must have been explored during his stay in Prague because it seems as though Bessler became obsessed with the chronogram.

Bessler visited Prague in about 1700, in 1696 Prague’s Jewish community was shaken by the show trial of the alleged murderers of 12-year-old Shim‘on Abeles, which marked the culmination of Jesuit efforts to Christianize Prague’s Jews.  Bessler, writing about the Rabbi, relates how "the Jew was a good Christian! He was a great exponent of the teachings of Nicodemus, and all in all I learned more with him in a short time than most people learn in many years."  This curious description of the Jew being a good Christian may relate to the comment above which describes the culmination of the Jesuit efforts to Christianize Prague's Jews at roughly the time Bessler was there.

Earlier Bessler describes how "a Jesuit came to see me - perhaps the most learned priest I'd ever met - and soon we were great friends".  It is possible that the Jesuit and the Rabbi had been discussing the Christianization of the Jews in Prague and from what Bessler said, perhaps the Rabbi was open-minded about the situation.  Their discussions may have influenced Bessler and later led to the publication of his ideas about uniting the Christian religions.

The above comments seem to indicate that Bessler was more than just an inventor hoping for get-rich-quick success.  He was a thinker, open-minded about religion, but still a committed Christian.  In his list of 141 Bible quotations in Apologia Poetica, many of the references do not come from the Protestant bible either of that time nor currently.  Othes refer to books only in the Roman Catholic version and some from the Hebrew bible, which seems to support the idea that he was an interdenominational Christian.

JC

## Monday 23 November 2015

### Yet more Numbering Clues from 'Das Triumphans'.

I know that my continual demonstration of clues I have found in Bessler's work seem to be centred on the existence of hidden pentagrams and a few alphanumeric clues.  The usual question is, so what?  Where are the clues which will lead to constructing a replica of Bessler's wheel?  My point in advertising these seemingly  irrelevant pieces of coding is to show that Bessler wanted us to find them and provided dozens and dozens of them in various forms so that we would eventually get the message and realise that there must be more to find and that it would eventually lead to the discovery of more graphic information and subsequently his wheel.

Many of us are convinced that Bessler's claims were genuine, even though we don't know how he did it.  Assuming he was genuine then, why would he waste his time in creating so many ingenious clues in all of his publications, extolling the virtues of his wonderful machine, and include illustrations that do nothing to tell us about the machines.  Why bother? Because the coded clues are intended to provide information or at least point to where that information can be found  The number 55 rears .its head with monotonous regularity and you'd have to be blind not to see where it's pointing to - his Apologia Poetica, Chapter 55.  http://www.orffyreus.net/html/chapter_55.html  shows everything I've discovered about chpater 55 and it is obviously full of encoded material and one day someone will work out how to decipher it. I confess it has beaten me so far although I understand that there are others working on it who are optimistic that they are making some headway.

So back to the numbering clues in the Das Tri illustrations.  Johann Bessler included an illustration showing the perpetual motion machine at Schloss Weissenstein.  It was connected to an archimedes pump and apparently demonstrated its power to pump water. See the illustration below.

Like the previous one this drawing is in two parts.  It uses letters from the alphabet rather than numbers this time to label the different parts.  The letters run from  'A' to 'T', in lower case.  He has omitted the letter 'J' because as we know, it is used as an alternative to the letter, 'i' in the German 24 letter alphabet, which is present.  Curiously the letter 'W' appears twice at the top of left side drawing and once at the bottom.  I say curiously because the letters 'U' and 'V' have been omitted and yet they are alternatives to each other and one might have expected to find one of them present seeing as their following letter, 'W' is included.

But there is more.  The itemised list that accompanies this illustration includes all the lower case letters with descriptions of the parts, but then uses the number ten in place of the apparent 'W' as seen in the drawing itself.  Furthermore closer scrutiny of the hand-drawn 'W' shows that it could also be read as the number ten.  But this makes no sense since the rest are labelled alphabetically.

In confirmation of this see the example from the list below. The letter 's' then 't' is followed by the number '10'.

Bessler's frequent use of alpha-numerics demands that we check out the possible use of them in this illustration.  Clearly we are meant to convert all the letters to numbers.

Adding up the subsequent numbers gives a total of 355, but this seems insignificant, until you realise that Bessler has again omitted one of the number 5s.  The number 5 identifies the rope in the right drawing but there is no such label attached to the rope in the left drawing.  From previous analyses we know that this is a typical Bessler method of encoding information within a drawing.  Adding the missing number 5 to the total brings it up to 360.

The total of numbers comes to 40 with the inclusion of the missing number 5 and as we have done before we divide 360 by 40 to give us 90.  A total of 90 again points to 18 times 5.  Once again we see the two main numbers associated with the pentagram.

As we saw in the previous drawing, the illustrations are in two halves.  Looking at the bottom of the right drawing there seem to be an unnecessary addition of extra letters, for instance there are two completely superfluous S’s and in fact the bottom of this right side drawing seems almost to have been added as an afterthought designed to boost the total to 360. See below.

Adding up the numbers in the right side drawing but excluding those extra ones underneath gives us 72, another key number in the pentagram.  The numbers in the left drawing total either 190 or 195 depending whether you include the missing number 5, but there are 18 numbers in total. The total number of letters used throughout is 20 if you count the 'W' as a letter and not a number.  360 divided by 20 equals 18. Bessler achived two things in this illustration, he demonstrated the presence of the number 72 again in the right side drawing excluding the numbers underneath - and he then obtained another meaningful number by adding both sides and including the extra numbers under the right side to get 360.  Of course 360 divided by 72 equals 5.

There are other clues buried in this illustration.  For instance in the picture below one can see two lines drawn in red, separated by a red vertical line forming angles of 72 degrees and the other, in blue, which is 54 degrees to the same vertical line, each seem to suggest another pentagram.

Back to the workshop for me now!

JC

## Sunday 15 November 2015

### More of Bessler's numbering clues in ‘Das Triumphans’.

After the two illustrations discussed in my previous post I have decided to offer my findings in another of the illustrations; this time the ‘Andere Figura’ and the ‘Secunda Figura in ‘Das Triumphans’.  Again I am discussing the numbering used in them.  I have placed a copy of the drawing below.  Again a single click on the picture will bring up an enlarged version so you can see the numbering more clearly.

The first thing to note in the pictures shown above, is that the right side of the left picture has been truncated slightly. In the book they are separated by a small gap filled with thin black and white lines, clearly designed to allow for the inner margins being partially enclosed by the book binding.  These lines allow you to bring the edges of the two illustrations close together as shown above.

In the drawing above you can see that the left circle can be completed and joins at the circumference of the right circle.  Notice that the circle I've drawn in, does not follow the original one as it leaves the left page.  This is due to the page being pulled inwards at the central binding which has slightly deformed the printed circle.  I always thought that the two pages were intended to be joined and I tested the theory with my original copy of  DT, by pressing the pages flat with a piece of glass and adjusting the right page until the thin black and white dividing lines were hidden.  It was then possible to draw in the complete circle to show that it did indeed abut the right circle.  As a check, note that the left half of my added circle aheres closely to the original one and that it only diverges as the bend in the paper aproaches the central crease.

In the above picture you can see yet aother pentagram inside the left picture. Notice how the extension of one of the chords of the pentagram runs through the middle of the right picture. This extension to the pentagon is governed by the close proximity of the two pictures so one must assume that the extension is intentional.  The main supporting pillar forms a perfect angle of 72 degrees with the extended chord, thus indicating the rotational angle of a second pentagon.

I've included the additional pentagram in the above picture, which may seem more speculative and I must admite that although it looks possible, I have found it difficult to draw in a perfect pentagram so please add a pinch of salt to this particular suggestion.

In the right side picture above, the large triangular pendulum has some curious properties which seem to be additional clues.  They are 30 degrees for the bottom angle, and 78 and 72 degrees for the upper left and right angles respectively.  The 72 degree angle obviously fits in with the hidden pentagon, but is there an additional clue there?  Of course!

The second thing is that the right picture seems to have an excess of the number eight (four).  This over-labelling looks suspiciously like the same technique I have described for the two first wheel pictures.  Could this be another indication of a grand total being sought?

Yes - the numbers in the left picture add up to 28; those in the right, 62, to total 90.  There are 15 numbers used and 90 divided by 15 is six.  But this does not seem to be a significant number, however Bessler’s favourite number 5, divides exactly 18 times into 90 – 5 and 18; the ubiquitous pentagonal numbers again.  Secondly the numbers used, 1 to 10, add up to a total of 55 – the other Bessler number.

JC

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### Bessler’s Wheel is the answer to Global Warming.

We've all heard the term Carbon net zero, but what exactly does it mean? Put simply, net zero refers to the balance between the amount o...