Thursday 20 June 2024

The Legend of Bessler’s Wheel or the Orffyreus Wheel and the facts.

Some fifty years ago, after I had established (to my satisfaction at least) that Bessler’s claim to have invented a perpetual motion machine was genuine, I decided to obtain as many verifiable facts pertaining to the legend of Bessler’s wheel as possible.  I believe that my publications below provide a summary of all the information available, but I should mention that I have made considerable progress in deciphering some of the inventor’s coded information, none of this is in the books detailed below, but you visit some of my other websites which give plenty of details.  This information is alluded to several times in his books, but it has taken many years of careful study to make sense of only some of it. Having said that there is considerable speculation about the various ciphers embedded in his works but most are too speculative to accept.

I think that the more we speculate the more confusion we can add. Speculation can be taken as fact and if further ideas are added that can compound the problem. I’m not promoting my books as the ultimate source of information on Bessler because there are so many historical documents which remain unexplored due to their poor condition or because they are lost in numerous private libraries. But for now they provide a quick and easy source of information on Johann Bessler and his perpetual motion machine.

Even though I published my biography of Johann Bessler several years ago, the information in it has not altered, because it is based on old documents written more than 300 years ago. There are new additional facts which need to be added at some point but they are details about his later life and although of interest do not impinge on the history of his perpetual motion machine. There are also Bessler’s own books which he published which cover his life in his own words and provide much information. The only other thing relevant to his story which I didn’t publish are two critiques written by his enemy, Christian Wagner and they are freely available in English at my main website, see below.

What follows is a list of my books, all but my biography were originally produced by Bessler to which I added a full English translation. The books are available in both hard copy and also as a digital PDF file.  The digital file allows easy searches for words and names.

I hope that people will continue to use these books as a source of accurate information in their journey of discovery to find the solution to Bessler’s wheel.

1) “Perpetual Motion: An Ancient Mystery Solved?”  View the synopsis for details of the book’s contents at my web site.  Briefly it is an account taken from of every document relating to Bessler that I could find from files held in museums around the world, researched and translated.

2) “Apologia Poetica”   This was Bessler’s account of his life up until the time of Karl the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel’s patronage. The book contains the original German transcribed into a modern font and includes a full English translation at the rear. I would have preferred to include the original German font but it was in such poor condition that it would have been unreadable. This book contains some allusions to secret codes hidden within the book itself.  

3) “Das Triumphans Perpetuum Mobile “- this was Bessler’s most professionally finished book. It was written in both German and Latin and this edition is a faithful reproduction of the actual pages of the original book. It also includes a full English translation at the rear. A number of drawings are included by the original author and these are said to contain a number of clues as to his machine’s workings.

4) “Gruendlicher Bericht” - this was Bessler’s first publication, ostensibly produced by a friend although I think one can detect Bessler’s handiwork in places. This copy is also in the original German and includes a full English translation at the rear. It also includes the very first drawing which Bessler published and this also contains clues to the way his machine worked.

5) “Maschinen Tractate” - this was found in the Bessler’s possessions after his death, in the form of a number of pages (141) and which contained a message on the front of the volume which stated that he had removed the drawings which depicted how his machine worked but that some one with a penetrating mind could by studying several drawings ultimately discover the secret of its construction. I have reproduced the drawings as they were found.  I included his handwritten notes with the best translation I could obtain, since the writing is very hard to read.

You can also read Christian Wagner’s two critiques of Bessler’s wheel at my main web site.

 Copies of all the above books can be obtained from my web site at 

Books available from    

Alternatively you can use the buttons in the lower part of the right side panel under the heading, ‘My Publications’, which also takes you to a payment page.

There are some excellent additional resources and a forum for discussion at the  

Besslerwheel forum

The best German web site is at

That’s all.  Of course some people prefer to continue their research into perpetual motion machines without referring to Bessler’s own efforts and I respect that, but for those who like to have the information relating to Johann Bessler aka Orffyreus to hand in an easily accessible format, the books detailed above provide a good digital resource.

It is common knowledge that Bessler left a lot of encoded information about how his wheel worked.  I have published a great deal of information about these codes and you read details both here www.the orffyreus and in my previous blogs.


Friday 14 June 2024

Observations About Johann Bessler and his Codes. Part One and Part Two.


I had planned to provide information about some of my discoveries concerning Bessler’s codes but my plans got disrupted.  Since then I have decided to go more generally into Bessler and his codes.  I believe these observations are accurate and they cover both his personality and his codes. This is part one, hopefully I will publish more of these if only to put them on the forum for discussion or simply information.

I hope this subject might be of interest?  I’m no expert so all the following info gleaned from various google searches.  I think that Bessler  had Asperger’s Syndrome, a development disorder that’s part of the autism spectrum disorder.  People who have this type of autism tend to have a hard time relating to others socially.  Asperger’s is known as a high functioning disorder, meaning it’s not as obvious as other forms of autism.  Asperger’s have problems reading body language and miss cues that are obvious to most people.  They obsess on a particular topic, they exhibit paranoia, but they often have strong verbal skills. In some cases their IQ may be very high, even in the genius range.  They often turn to computer science and apparently many of the best programmers have either Asperger’s syndrome or some of its traits.

Gottfried Leibniz wrote of Bessler, “ Malicious people are trying to get Mr. Orffyreus to think badly of me, particularly as he is of a suspicious nature. I hear that he talks about me in front of the spectators.” In a later letter, Leibniz describes Bessler as his friend, but he has not adapted to the rules of communal life.

These comments support the suggestion of paranoia and social awkwardness similar to Asperger’s.  The obsessive study of perpetual motion is typical of the syndrome and perhaps his higher intellect contributed to his amazing success in solving the puzzle.  His verbal skills were clearly excellent.  But this is just my diagnosis of his personality.

I first attributed Asperger’s to Bessler on reading about the English hacker Gary McKinnon who, in 2002 was accused of penetrating the computers at the Pentagon and  NASA in what was described as the biggest military computer attack of all time. He was seeking anything about UFOs at the time.  He was officially diagnosed as having Asperger’s syndrome and there are a number of similar character traits between the two men.

Of course such obsessions might be suggested as being attached to our own search for the solution that Bessler found?  I’m not qualified to comment!


We are certain in our own minds that Bessler’s claims to have invented, built and demonstrated a genuine perpetual motion machine (PMM).  In his case a PMM is a continuously turning wheel which can also raise heavy weights, turn other wheels or pumps etc.  To be true, it must be enabled by gravity.  The evidence is overwhelming if studied without bias.  

Consider this, if he was genuine then he almost certainly would not have risked his invention being lost to the world after his death.  Indeed he said as much and also wrote in AP, “Those who are keen to ask questions should ask them of this little book.”  He used a well-known code to produce a pseudonym to establish his credentials as being accomplished in the art of ciphers both graphic and textual.   The other point of the encoded pseudonym was designed to hint at further, more complex codes which might provide more detailed information and that is what has happened.

There has been some discussion about whether Bessler used the 24 letter alphabet or the 26 letter one; in my opinion there is no questions he used the 26 letter alphabet.  He was born Elias Bessler, note the inclusion of the letter ‘i.’  Just prior to his first demonstration he added two extra forenames, Johann Ernst, note the addition of the letter ‘j’.  So the letters ‘i’ and ‘j’ are both used.  That fact on its own should settle the argument, but there is much more.

We know he used alphanumerics extensively and J was the tenth letter, E was the fifth letter.  He also used the atbash cipher, so E also became the letter R, and J became W.  Using the 26 letter alphabet R is the 18th letter which fits in with his ubiquitous use of the number 5 and the pentagram.   So J is the tenth letter, but W is the 23rd.  23 doesn’t seem a useful number but Bessler used to draw the letter W in his own special way as two interlocking Roman Vs.  He even managed to find some examples of printers type  arranged as interlocking Vs and used it for his inclusion of Gartner’s name several times in AP.

Why was this important?  I believe it was meant to tell us about the cross.  Note, not the cross-bar, because he uses ‘creuz’ simply translated as ‘cross’.   The letter W with the interlocking Vs includes a perfect cross.  I have said before that this cross is also visible in the scissor mechanisms and it’s clear to me that this is what he meant. In fact the letter W is a highly important part of the mechanism. The several ‘bent’ horizontal bar ‘A’s’  in MT also suggest the scissor mechanisms.  

Bessler deliberately chose the letter ‘J’ in his extra forename to lead via the atbash cipher to the letter ‘W’, and of course to ensure that the correct alphanumerics were applied.

PS I know the idea that Bessler used the 24 letter alphabet has some support, mainly I think because he used 24 numbers in the Merseburg and Weissenstein illustrations, but that number was chosen because he embedded a hidden clock with both pictures.  The reason for the presence of the clock was to hint that the total of the numbers within the picture had to be divided by the twelve hours of the clock.  660 divided by 12 gives 55, another reference to the 5 mechanisms and their interlocked Vs.



Saturday 8 June 2024

Information About Johann Bessler’s Wheel.

I have posted a lot of information about Johann Bessler’s wheel since I began this blog in 2009 - there have been 846 posts to date.  I have also written and published five books, as detailed in my previous blog.  

The published books contain a lot of information collected from an huge number of sources and unavailable in this form anywhere else, but there is a wealth of additional  information available through this blog, mainly culled from the carefully embedded hints that Bessler placed within the books he published. Over the years I’ve discussed these clues and found the meaning of most of them and I’ve published many of them both here and on my other websites. You can find links to my other websites listed at the bottom of the right side panel.

What follows is a list of searches worth carrying out for information discussed in this blog.  I had hoped to actually provide links to each subject matter but 864 posts would take too long to peruse and set up the appropriate links, so I must content myself with providing a list which I hope will  an attempt to collate the information and provide links to some of the blog posts containing the subject matter.  You will find the “SEARCH THIS BLOG window at the top of the right side panel very helpful.  You can copy and paste the words in the search window and search, but I’ve kept the items in the list as short as I can so you can just type anything in.

This list is not in any particular order, and not comprehensive, but try some out, I think you will be pleased with the result. If it produces more than one reference, it adds each page under the first one so it’s worth scrolling downwards to read other posts on the same subject.  I will add to it as and when I think of another subject.





PMAAMS.     (Book) Perpetual Motion, An Ancient Mystery Solved? By JC

GB.                (Book) Grundlicher Bericht.  By Bessler.

AP.                 (Book) Apologia Poetica        By Bessler.

DT.                 (Book) Das Triumphirende     By Bessler.

MT.                 (Book) Maschinen Tractate    By Bessler.

Apologia Wheel.


Atbash cipher.

Bessler skills.






Circle of fifths.





Drawing numbers.







Global warming.

Golden ratio.



Kassel wheel.


MT 137.



Odd numbers.













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