Monday 27 November 2023

What Goes Around, Comes Around……Again and Again!

I’m aware that some people, (maybe more than some!) are disappointed by my ‘sharing information’ posts because they say that it’s all stuff I’ve shared before, but I don’t want to post anything which will give away the design I’m working on just now.  

As you’ll see from this post I’m reminding myself of some of the things I’ve shared, and I can tell you that there are some blogs which give a great deal of really useful information.  At the time I wrote them, I regretted writing so much, but as is often the case no one picked up on what I’d said and it was all dismissed as my ‘usual speculation’, and best dismissed or ignored. Having said that I note that in 2019 I wrote, 

Following a fair criticism in comments, I have taken on board the suggestion that I should at least have given away some of the clues I used to discover Bessler’s design for his wheel. I have posted several clues over a number of years but for those who missed them, here are some of the ones previously identified plus some I didn’t mention.  These are not necessarily in order.”

So still not revealing enough apparently!  Still, at the end of this year you will know most of what I think I know about how Bessler’s wheel worked.  I’d like to finish a working model before I publish what I know, because experience warns me  that without one, no one will take any notice again, and just dismiss it as speculation.

I recently noted that some of the subjects of my old posts, both here and on the Besslerwheel forum, pop up from time to time there.   I realise that there must be a lot of people currently exploring this subject who have not looked into old posts in either or both sources for obvious reasons.

Firstly, if they’re new to this subject, they think that only recent posts may have useful information in them and therefore there is no point in studying old posts.  Also maybe they don’t have the time to plough through huge numbers of posts without knowing exactly what to search for, or they can’t be bothered, and I don’t blame them for that.

A quick look at the stats on this blog shows I have posted 798 pages, which received 29,915 comments and 1,786,619 visits.  That’s a lot of words to search, so I thought I’d suggest some searches.

The number ‘5’ is my favourite and it goes all the way back to 2010, and is frequently discussed over the years.  ‘Pentagram’ too is a frequent presence on this blog. ‘Kiiking’ a subject which I introduced here and in the BW Forum and has been taken up in numerous other places.  ‘Parametric Oscillation’ is another old favourite, which I first discussed with the famous parapsychologist and electrical engineer, professor Hal Puthoff way back in 2004; and ‘drawings’ is another.

There are so many interesting subjects covered both here and at the BWForum, that I couldn’t do justice to them all, so if and when I think of them I may offer further searches.  


Friday 24 November 2023

Sharing Info MT 138, 139, 140 and 141- AKA — The TOYS Page

This post contains some of my ideas about where and how Bessler intended to reveal the workings of his perpetual motion device, or what is generally referred to as Bessler’s Wheel.  Without a working model this is speculation, but I believe it is based on some sound interpretation of the many clues and hints he scattered throughout his documents.

 I’ve written several blogs about the ‘Toys’ page so this is my latest and best attempt to explain all of it.

The figure below is from the original Maschinen Tractate, which is a name I coined for it because I originally thought that Bessler was referring to this collection of drawings in one of his letters but I think now he was talking about another project.

Underneath this original picture is the same figure cleaned up which is the one I’ll write about and explain what I believe is the true meaning of all the separate figures.

Notice first that items A and B can be split into five equal parts.  This signifies that there are five mechanisms.  Notice each figure in A looks similar to the two items C and D, this is to provide a hint that their actions very roughly mimic the actions of the actual mechanisms.  Each part of A is linked to the next part with a length of rope.

Items C and D are each labelled twice.  Both sets of figures show two figures working in pairs, which agrees with a statement to that effect by Bessler.  The two C’s have arms but the two D’s don’t. The two C’s show two of the figures working in pairs before they have acted; the two D’s shows the same two figures after they have acted. This implies that C did the work so was active but D was acted upon and was passive.  C lifted it’s paired mechanism and thus D was lifted. Item D has spirals which indicate that the figure is at a different angle to C, because if, for instance, C operates at the six o’clock radius the D is lifted from a different point on the edge of the circle.

It’s worth pointing out that he drew one of each mechanism but then added two D’s and two C’s to stress that the two figures were the same mechanisms working in pairs, but at different points in the rotation of the wheel.

Item B is an interesting one and I only understood why it was drawn in this way a few months ago. The answer lies partly in item E.  You can see in B that it consists of five straight vertical lines with one dot alternately on each side or, if you ignore the five separating lines, it’s a straight vertical line with those dots on alternate sides.

I’ll return to B in a moment, first let us examine item E. The items on the page are numbered 1 to 5, yet there are six, if you count the hand drawn spinning top.  This looks like a late addition to me which might explain why he wrote 5. next to his scribble note. But as someone pointed out to me many years ago, the number 5. with its clearly drawn full stop or period indicates not five items, but the fifth item - the letter E.  The scissor mechanism or storks bill.

Remember Bessler’s frequent use of alphanumerics, in this case his scribbled note in the Toys page, “5. Children's game in which there is something extraordinary for anyone who knows how to apply the game in a different way”, applies in particular to the scissor mechanism labelled E.

Now in another drawing which I’ll discuss in a later share, it indicates
that the scissor mechanism should be applied in a different way which looks like this one:-

In the above picture I have extracted items B and E because B shows which part of E you need to use. Notice the same dots are there in E but in B half of them have been removed leaving a single line. This shows the alternate swivel pins or joints holding the short lengths of metal at each end together. The middle of each piece of metal shows a pivot which allows it to rotate. If the figure B is accurate, and I’m sure it is, then there is one of these mechanisms in each fifth segment.

This is similar to the picture below which shows a simple mechanism used widely in organ building in Bessler’s time.  

Also remember Bessler’s comment in AP, “ A crab crawls from side to side. It is sound, for it is designed thus.”   This comment is a hint that this mechanism will work best in a horizontal position where there is no lifting required just side to side action.

The two short lines at the top end of the original version of B will be explained later but they indicate two positions of a short lever attached to the end of the zigzag line.

That’s all for now. More later.


Sunday 19 November 2023

Further Update on Bessler’s Wheel Model.

Building this prototype has made me realise how clever Bessler was to squeeze all of these mechanisms. into such a thin wheel.  His first wheel was only four inches thick and even allowing for very thin coverings there wasn’t much room inside. On the plus side, in my version none of the mechanisms overlap so there isn’t a problem of them taking up too much room within the internal depth of the wheel.

I’ve placed ten pivot points, two per mechanism.  The levers are a little complex and getting their configuration right requires a small amount of trial and adjustment.  I deliberately did not say trial and error, because that is not the case; it is necessary to find the optimum arrangement and this can only be defined accurately by trying slightly different adjustments to each part. I know exactly how they are supposed to work.  Once the exact proportions of one lever is correctly determined, the others can be made in the same manner.

Although none of the five mechanisms overlap in their actions, they are connected in pairs so that as one weight falls another is lifted.  There is no requirement for one pound to lift four pounds as I have explained many times. Yet, although doomed to failure,  people still try to design a system thst can do that.  This is what Bessler said, “as one weight falls 90 degrees it’s paired one is lifted suddenly just 30 degrees.”

The next and final part is designing connections between each pair of mechanisms.  At first I assumed two pulleys per mechanisms would do the job, but I’ve discovered that that won’t work because they get in the way of the action  of the levers.  It’s quite likely that the configuration can be altered to include the pulleys in their most effective position. But for now I’ve had to make alterations to the positions and even the use of the pulleys and for this prototype I’m not using them.  The alternative is to replace the pulleys with a simple eye from a hook-and-eye fastener.  This would be fine for a short demonstration but not for long term use.  The cord I’m using slips easily and smoothly through the eye.

My five weights are small and roughly equal to about 2 ounces each. Each one can easily lift another weight a short distance quickly.  Larger weights would produce more speed and overcome the friction inherent in my home-made bearings but I’m only trying to prove the design and not make a 50 rpm wheel……yet.

I’m not posting pictures until I’ve tested this device to see if it works, before I share anything more informative. Someone commented that no one could simulate the design unless I included a picture but I don’t want anyone to simulate it yet, not until I’ve tested it as a working model.  What I can say is the designs were completed by studying several drawings in AP and DT, plus the ‘Toys’ page and hints from a few others.  Even then I had to have a much needed kick up the backside by means of a sudden revelation about a drawing in the ‘Toys’ page which linked with another drawing which I thought I had understood, but I hadn’t considered for long enough all  the potential variables possible.

Anyway, slow progress but creeping progress at least.  Quite a lot of careful assembly necessary to get the levers working correctly.  As I’ve said many times, I will share all of it once I’ve tested it, working or not working, because I believe I’m very close to what Bessler designed, so my efforts might be enough for someone else to finish it. I’m aiming to finish one way or the other by New Year’s Eve, if not before.


GB Grundlicher  Bericht

AP Apologia Poetica

DT Das Triumphirende

MT Maschinen Tractate.

Thursday 16 November 2023

The True Story of Johann Bessler and His Perpetual Motion.

 On 6th June, 1712, in Germany, Johann Bessler (also known by his pseudonym, Orffyreus) announced that after many years of failure, he had succeeded in designing and building a perpetual motion machine. For more than fourteen years he exhibited his machine and allowed people to thoroughly examine the outside of it, but it’s internal workings were kept hidden. This was because the inventor feared that his design would be copied and someone else might obtain credit for all his years of hard work looking for the solution. He followed the advice from the famous scientist, Gottfried Leibniz, who was able to examine the device, and recommended a number of demonstrations and tests designed to prove the validity of his machine without giving away the secret of its design.

Karl the Landgrave of Hesse permitted Bessler to live, work and exhibit his machine at the prince's castle of Weissenstein. Karl was a man of unimpeachable reputation and he insisted on being allowed to verify the inventor's claims before he allowed Bessler to take up residence. This the inventor reluctantly agreed to and once he had examined the machine to his own satisfaction Karl authorised the publication of his approval of the machine. For several years Bessler was visited by numerous people of varying status, scientists, ministers and royalty. Several official examinations were carried out and each time the examiners concluded that the inventor's claims were genuine.

Over a number of years Karl aged and it was decided that after so long it was time the inventor left the castle and he was granted accommodation in the nearby town of Karlshafen. Despite the strong circumstantial evidence that his machine was genuine, Bessler failed to secure a sale and after more than thirty years he died in poverty. His death came after he fell from a windmill he had been commissioned to build. The windmill was an interesting design using a vertical axle which allowed it to benefit from winds from any directions. 

He had asked for a huge sum of money for the secret of his perpetual motion machine, £20,000 which was an amount thought only affordable by kings and princes, and although many were interested, none were prepared to agree to the terms of the deal. Bessler required that he be given the money before the buyer was allowed to view the internal workings of the machine. But those who sought to purchase the wheel, for that was the form the machine took, insisted that they see the secret mechanism before they parted with the money. Bessler feared that once the design was known the buyers could simply walk away knowing how to build his machine and he would get nothing for his trouble. 

I became curious about the legend of Bessler’s Wheel, while still in my teens, and have spent most of my life researching the life of Johann Bessler (I’m now 78). I obtained copies of all his books and had them translated into English and self-published them, in the hope that either myself or someone else might solve the secret and present it to the world in this time of pollution, global warming and increasingly limited energy resources.

Not long after I was able to read the English translations of his books, I realised that Bessler had embedded a number of clues in his books. These took the form of hints in the text, but also in a number of drawings he published and I found suggestions by the author that studying his books would reveal enough information about his wheel,to allow “someone with an acute and discerning mind, to build one”.

For some ideas about Bessler’s code why not visit my web sites at 

Take a look at my work on his “Declaration of Faith” at 

Also please view my video at 

It gives a brief account both the legend and some more detail about some of the codes.

The problem of obtaining a fair reward for all his hard work was anticipated by Bessler and he took extraordinary measures to ensure that his secret was safe, but he encoded all the information needed to reconstruct the machine in a small number of books that he published. He implied that he was prepared to die without selling the secret and that he believed that posthumous acknowledgement was preferable to being robbed of his secret while he yet lived.

It has recently become clear that Bessler had a huge knowledge of the history of codes and adopted several completely different ones to disguise information within his publications. I have made considerable advances in deciphering his codes and I am confident that I have the complete design.

Johann Bessler published three books, and digital copies of these with English translations may be obtained from the links to the right of this blog. In addition there is a copy of his unpublished document containing some 141 drawings - and also my own account of Bessler’s life is also available from the links. It is called "Perpetual Motion; An Ancient Mystery Solved?" 

This biography contains a wealth of information about Bessler himself, as well as many quotes by Bessler and letters to him or about him from many interested parties. It tells of his life up to and including his years with Karl the Landgrave of Hesse Kassel, and what happened to him later.

Bessler's three published books are entitled "Grundlicher Bericht""Apologia Poetica” and "Das Triumphirende...".

I have called Bessler's collection of 141 drawings “Maschinen Tractate”, but it was originally found in the form of a number of loosely collected drawings of perpetual motion designs. Many of these have handwritten notes attached and I have published the best English translation of them that I was able to get. Bessler never published these drawings but clearly intended to use them in his planned school for apprentices.

You can order copies of the books from my website at 

Printed books direct from the printer can be obtained from here

Or from the top of the right side panel under the heading ‘Bessler’s Books’.
There are also links lower down on the right side panel.

These books contain the most important information available if you seek to find the solution to Bessler’s wheel.


Saturday 11 November 2023

A Brief Account of My Bessler Journey to the Present.

Between 1960, when I first read Gould’s excellent account of Bessler’s wheel and 1974 when I built my first attempt at replicating it out of balsa wood and washers, my thoughts were confined to my mind and numerous scraps of paper and pencil drawings. From then until about 1980 little changed until I made up my mind to try to obtain as much hard information about Johann Bessler and his perpetual motion machine as I could possibly manage.  This was of course before the internet made this kind of task so much easier.

I joined the British Museum Library and was able to actually touch and handle GB, AP and DT. Subsequently I obtained poor copies of those same documents, but I couldn’t read them.  I advertised in a local newspaper for anyone who could translate 18th C German into English. Amazingly I was contacted by four people, one of whom was Mike Senior who became a good friend over the next twenty years or so.

He translated everything into English, handwriting it and adding a number of notes about what he had done.  He asked me if I wanted a literal word by word translation or what he said would be his best impression of what Bessler wrote, conveying meaning and nuance where possible. I chose the latter because I simply didn’t know what was in the documents at that time.

Seeing as we all make use of his translations I should say a word or two about Mike.  For a start he was was a polymath and a member of MENSA. He was consultant to the local authority on flora, having a Masters Degree in Botany in fact several degrees in different unrelated subjects - he was just curious about everything.  He read and spoke 18th C German, read and translated  Latin and could quote from memory from all the Greek classical plays in the original Greek.  He was an expert on astrophysics and wrote papers for peer review in scientific journals.  He loved Maths problems and tried to explain String Theory and Riemann’s Conjecture to me, for example.  It went straight over my head at very high altitude! He  also like his beer!  There was so much more to Mike but space is limited. But he did once say to me, “of course you do realise that what Bessler claimed is impossible”.  We laughed and agreed to disagree.

Once I had the translations plus a number of other documents about Bessler, also in German and needing translating, I set about writing my own biography of Bessler, trying hard to stick to the facts as presented.  Most of these were either letters to and from and about Bessler, or items from the local newspapers of the time.  Included were accounts of several official examinations arranged by certain men of high standing including Karl the Landgrave of Hesse Kassel who agreed to offer his patronage and support but only if he had first satisfied himself that the machine was genuine

I was unable to get a publisher in the U.K. to publish my book, although I only sent it to about a dozen publishers having written the manuscript in one year.  I read that JK Rowling took seven years to write her first book!  Maybe I should have held out for more publishers, but I was impatient, and decided to self publish.

Later I decided in addition to PM:AAMS? to self publish GB, AP, DT and MT.  It wasn’t profitable at all but it enabled me to just about cover my costs in running several web sites.

While this was happening I continued with my day job and in my spare time constructed many PM wheels.  I began this blog back in  April 2009.  It’s alarming to see how confident I was back then - nothing’s changed!

I’ve done numerous radio interviews both here and abroad.  I was invited to Rome to take part in a documentary about Bessler.  Unfortunately it was all in Italian, even my words were dubbed in so I don’t  even know what I said let alone what the rest of the cast said.  It was a bit of a set up as the other speakers were traditional scientists following the classic path that it was impossible.

I was asked to lecture at the Glastonbury Crop circle symposium in the mid 1990s and met Brian O’Leary a trained astronaut although he didn’t complete his training. It was a strange gig, which resulted in me discovering I could dowse for water, not a very useful trick these days, but curiously rewarding.

I also did a radio interview from home, here in England with Redneck radio in Greenwood, USA.  Hilarious but good fun.

There is so much more but I don’t want to bore the pants off you!


GB Grundliccher Bericht

AP Apologia Poetica

DT Das Triumphirende

Saturday 4 November 2023

What Was the Purpose of this Blog? To Inform.

I think sometimes that people question the purpose of this blog.  My approach has always been to try to interest everyone who happens to drop in on this blog and I’ve tried to maintain an ethical standard in my writing, not knowingly including false information but occasionally offering speculation. 

I have from time to time got carried away with an optimistic view of my ongoing research and made promises I was unable to fulfil.  I understand how frustrating this can be, and I humbly apologise.  Usually I try to curb my enthusiasm, but from time to time I fail.  A quote from Top Gun seems appropriate;” “Son, your ego is writing checks your body can't cash”.  I must apologise if I seem overly optimistic, but in my defence, I know that optimism is a vital ingredient in this field of research.

When I began this blog back in February 2009, I never dreamed that I would still be writing it 14 years later. and yet here I am.  I’ve described numerous clues and codes I’ve found that Bessler inserted into his publications over the years and they actually amount to a lot of information.  

As time passed I imagined in my naivety that some people would see and understand the interpretations I was giving away freely and do as I have done.  I have continued to search, find and interpret clues and codes, hoping that people would continue my work, possibly getting to the solution before me.  But no; they haven’t!  I realised fairly recently that nothing else would change this but a working model and a full explanation of how Bessler gave us the clues to solve this puzzle.  This laissez-faire attitude among my readers is possibly because everyone wants to be the one who finally finds the solution to this 311 year old mystery, using their own interpretations of Bessler’s meaning.

Be that as it may, the moment of truth is fast approaching.   The solution to Bessler’s wheel might well be a simultaneous discovery or invention.  Given that so many people are engaged in this pursuit, it’s quite possible, even likely, that two or more will announce the solution within hours of each other. I don’t mind if this happens, I welcome it, let’s let the genie out of the bottle, that’s the most important thing.

My chief aim over the life of this blog has been to try to keep the story of Bessler’s wheel alive in the mind of the countless numbers of people already engaged in seeking the solution.  It has also been my self-appointed task to try to bring the story to the younger minds who are not perhaps au fait with the legend, and of course pursue my own research whether through building models - and when that failed to materialise successfully - continue to look for new clues/codes which still awaited deciphering.

I have to admit that after so many years building experimental models that did not work, I stopped and concentrated on finding the solution without the bother of building, but since I recently came to the conclusion that only a working model would ever convince anybody that my interpretations are correct the thought of starting to build again was a little daunting, but having begun again I am enjoying it and am hopeful, finally, of success.

This has been an expensive exercise.  I originally ran 10 websites but I had to let some of them go which was a painful decision for me.  The only income I had that I could use to keep this thing going came from the sale of books which is why you will see the occasional blog promoting the legend of Bessler’s wheel. It’s getting harder to cover the expense and I can see a time not so far off, when I’ll have to let them go, but I’ll keep on while I can.

I have latterly found a few new clue/codes and reinterpreted old ones, and this information which I have been able to add to that which I already have, has enabled me to at last believe I’m almost there. My current build will be my last one, if it doesn’t work, I think I will know why, and it will then be my pleasure to release all that I know, and some that you don’t know I know! 

People often ask me if I would patent the device if I was able to build a successful one - well the answer has always been no.  Patents are not for likes of us, too expensive to get and too expensive to watch over and defend.  Besides you’re never going to stop random people and companies elsewhere in the world, building and selling their own Bessler wheels, where such niceties as moral and legal systems are overlooked. So no patents.


The True Story of Johann Bessler and His Perpetual Motion.

  On  6th June, 1712, in Germany, Johann Bessler (also known by his pseudonym, Orffyreus) announced that after many years of failure, he had...