Thursday 29 July 2021

Could This Be the Solution to Global Warming?

A Potential Solution to Climate Change.

We are being bombarded with news of natural disasters from all around the globe; record high temperatures, forest fires, floods, melting icecaps, hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes.  All of these are happening with increasing frequency and intensity.  The cause is said be global warming.  This is attributed to the greenhouse effect and the blame for that is laid firmly at the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat, and transportation.

More often and louder is the clamour for something to be done on a global scale.  Everyone seems to be in agreement, we need a way of producing cheap,  clean energy but what? I won’t cover the multitude of ideas and methods being used or suggested - in my opinion these are all temporary or location critical measures which don’t really alleviate the problem. 

I’ve had this blog since 2009 and I’ve suggested that Bessler’s wheel could provide a source of cheap, clean, low tech energy in at least a dozen blogs over the years but out there in the real world, no one ever takes any notice!  Why? Because they have been taught that his machine was impossible and therefore must have been a fraud. 

There is plenty of excellent evidence that it was genuine which is why thousands of individuals all over the world are striving to duplicate his machine.  This device could generate electricity using just the force of gravity, but of course without a working model to prove it, it is dismissed as wild fantasy, and a chance to start to combat the effects of global warming missed.

But just in case someone, somewhere happens to chance upon this blog and decides to find out more about Johann Bessler, aka Orffyreus, I’m repeating the story of his machine below.  Maybe it might attract the attention of an open-minded researcher who has the backing of an engineering facility. I would be amazed if that happened, but let’s face it; it has to happen some time, and the sooner the better.

In the mean time we lone amateurs continue to experiment, analyse and investigate, building our models on a shoestring, hoping for success, while the world around us continues to burn, flood and shake it’s foundations.

So here is the story of Johann Bessler’s amazing machine.

The Legend of Bessler's wheel.

On 6th June, 1712, in Germany, Johann Bessler (also known by his pseudonym, Orffyreus) announced that after many years of failure, he had succeeded in designing and building a perpetual motion machine. For more than fourteen years he exhibited his machine and allowed people to thoroughly examine it. Following advice from the famous scientist, Gottfried Leibniz, who was able to examine the device, he devised a number of demonstrations and tests designed to prove the validity of his machine without giving away the secret of its design.

Karl the Landgrave of Hesse permitted Bessler to live, work and exhibit his machine at the prince's castle of Weissenstein. Karl was a man of unimpeachable reputation and he insisted on being allowed to verify the inventor's claims before he allowed Bessler to take up residence. This the inventor reluctantly agreed to and once he had examined the machine to his own satisfaction Karl authorised the publication of his approval of the machine. For several years Bessler was visited by numerous people of varying status, scientists, ministers and royalty. Several official examinations were carried out and each time the examiners concluded that the inventor's claims were genuine.

Over several years Karl aged and it was decided that the inventor should leave the castle and he was granted accommodation in the nearby town of Karlshafen. Despite the strong circumstantial evidence that his machine was genuine, Bessler failed to secure a sale and after more than thirty years he died in poverty. His death came after he fell from a windmill he had been commissioned to build. The windmill was an interesting design using a vertical axle which allowed it to benefit from winds from any directions. 

He had asked for a huge sum of money for the secret of his perpetual motion machine, £20,000 which was an amount only affordable by kings and princes, and although many were interested, none were prepared to agree to the terms of the deal. Bessler required that he be given the money and the buyer take the machine without viewing the internal workings. Those who sought to purchase the wheel, for that was the form the machine took, insisted that they see the secret mechanism before they parted with the money. Bessler feared that once the design was known the buyers could simply walk away knowing how to build his machine and he would get nothing for his trouble.

I became curious about the legend of Bessler’s Wheel, while still in my teens, and have spent most of my life researching the life of Johann Bessler (I’m now 76).  I obtained copies of all his books and had them translated into English and self-published them, in the hope that either myself or someone else might solve the secret and present it to the world in this time of pollution, global warming and increasingly limited energy resources.

Not long after I was able to read the English translations of his books, I became convinced that Bessler had embedded a number of clues in his books.  These took the form of hints in the text, but also in a number of drawings he published.  Subsequently I found suggestions by the author that studying his books would reveal more information about his wheel.

For some ideas about Bessler’s code why not visit my web sites or see my work on his “Declaration of Faith at

Also please view my video at
It gives a brief account both the legend and some more detail about some of the codes.

The problem of obtaining a fair reward for all his hard work was anticipated by Bessler and he took extraordinary measures to ensure that his secret was safe, but he encoded all the information needed to reconstruct the machine in a small number of books that he published. He implied that he was prepared to die without selling the secret and that he believed that posthumus acknowledgement was preferable to being robbed of his secret while he yet lived.
It has recently become clear that Bessler had a huge knowledge of the history of codes and adopted several completely different ones to disguise information within his publications. I have made considerable advances in deciphering his codes and I am confident that I have the complete design.
Johann Bessler published three books, and digital copies of these with English translations may be obtained from the links to the right of this blog. In addition there is a copy of his unpublished document containing some 141 drawings - and my own account of Bessler’s life is also available from the links. It is called "Perpetual Motion; An Ancient Mystery Solved?" 

Bessler's three published books are entitled "Grundlicher Bericht", "Apologia Poetica" and "Das Triumphirende...". I have called Bessler's collection of 141 drawings Maschinen Tractate, but it was originally found in the form of a number of loosely collected drawings of perpetual motion designs. Many of these have handwritten notes attached and I have published the best English translation of them that I was able to get. Bessler never published these drawings but clearly intended to use them in his planned school for apprentices.

You can order copies of the books from my website at
Or from the top of the right side panel under the heading ‘Bessler’s Books’.
There are also links lower down on the right side panel.


"Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution."  

Albert Einstein 

Most of the important things in the world have been accomplished by people who have kept on trying when there seemed to be no hope at all.”                                               

Dale Carnegie

Sunday 25 July 2021

That Gut Feeling Could Help us! We Better Not Ignore it.

We’re all familiar with the expression, ‘a gut feeling’, meaning an intuitive or instinctive feeling about something which is not, at that moment, supported by logical rationale.  It’s a personal feeling almost amounting to conviction about something which may go against current opinion.  It’s hard to justify and equally difficult to explain.  

We who seek the answers to Johann Bessler’s wheel must, by definition, be following our gut instincts and therefore justification is hard to provide and our case goes against the commonly held view.

Sometimes our gut feeling leads us up the garden path with nowhere to go, but there is something special about some ‘gut feelings’, which you just ‘know’ are legitimate. These are few and far between but they could put you on the road to success.  I’ve experienced that magical gut feeling a few times and I’ve had some ‘light bulb’ moments too, which are related to ‘gut reactions’, but not exactly same, but the instant euphoria is similar and both are incredibly encouraging in this difficult path we tread.

The lightbulb moment is that sudden revelation of the answer to a puzzle which has been hovering at the back of your mind.  Gut feeling can sometimes reveal a truth which was previously unknown and it should not be ignored, and in my experience it never is.

‘Intuition’ is another name for ‘gut feeling’ it literally means ‘learning from within’, which seems a pretty good alternative.  Intuition is currently understood to be the ‘subconscious processing of information that is too complex for rational thought’, but the word ‘complex’ doesn’t really cover it for me.  The subconscious information being processed is disorganised and apparently random.  So the organising, refining and clarifying of each particle of data takes place beyond the conscious mind, and in my opinion it is directed by another part of the subconscious which, in seeking an answer to a problem, is analysing all information being received, looking for anything which might have potential relation to one particular puzzle. 

The exciting tingling that happens in your brain when a gut feeling makes itself felt seems a strange connection - so how is this possible? It seems that that feeling in your gut also stems from the same cause as ‘butterflies’ in your stomach when you’re  nervous.

It has been suggested that when you’re nervous, you’re likely getting signals from an unexpected source: your second brain. Hidden in the walls of the digestive system, this “brain in your gut” is revolutionising medicine’s understanding of the links between digestion, mood, health and even the way you think.  


“Scientists call this little brain the enteric nervous system (ENS). And it’s not so little. The ENS is two thin layers of more than 100 million nerve cells (200-600 million nerve cells in another paper) lining your gastrointestinal tract from esophagus to rectum, which measures about 9 meters (almost 30 feet) that’s more than in either the spinal cord or the peripheral nervous system.

Unlike the big brain in your skull, the ENS can’t balance your checkbook or compose a love note. “Its main role is controlling digestion, from swallowing to the release of enzymes that break down food to the control of blood flow that helps with nutrient absorption to elimination,” explains Jay Pasricha, M.D., director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Neurogastroenterology, whose research on the enteric nervous system has garnered international attention. “The enteric nervous system doesn’t seem capable of thought as we know it, but it communicates back and forth with our big brain—with profound results.”

This ‘gut-brain’ alliance has raised consciousness and is a contributor to subconscious processing of all data.

In my humble opinion, the gut feeling is induced by the brain’s subconscious, trying to make contact with the conscious.  The subconscious is the part of the mind of which one is not fully aware but which influences one's actions and feelings. We should be aware of rumblings, butterflies and other gut actions in case they are our subconscious trying to grab our attention! 

“The concept that the gut and the brain are closely connected, and that this interaction plays an important part not only in gastrointestinal function but also in certain feeling states and in intuitive decision making, is deeply rooted in our language.”

And here also, fascinating!

JC  🤔

Tuesday 20 July 2021

A Reminder of some Facts about Johann Bessler’s Machines.,

We have discussed the various perpetual motion machines, aka ‘wheels’, invented and exhibited by Bessler, so often and for so long, I think we have become blasé about their extraordinary potential, so here are few reminders which I hope will inspire you (and I) to greater efforts in our search for the secret of his success.

First wheel at Gera, 50 RPM, unloaded. Only 4.6 feet diameter, 4 inches approx thickness. Rotated at almost one turn per second!

As did the second wheel at Draschwitz, 50 RPM, unloaded.  Only it was 9.3 feet diameter, 6 inches in thickness and twice the size of the Gera wheel yet they both spun at 50 RPM!

Even the third wheel at Merseburg, 40 RPM ‘or more’. Increased to 12 feet diameter, 11.15 inches thickness. Almost hit the 50 RPM speed and it might have done so but we don’t have accurate records of its speed.  This one was three times the size of the first one!

Fourth wheel at Weissenstein Castle, Kassel. 26 RPM unloaded. 12 feet diameter, 18 inches thick.  It was thoroughly examined by Baron Fischer who described the sound of about eight weights landing gently on the side towards which the wheel turned. This wheel was designed for the long endurance test so was designed to rotate at half speed.

It would seem that size doesn’t necessarily limit its speed of rotation nor its ability to lift heavy weight, which is what Bessler said.

Going back to the first wheel spinning at 50 RPM, almost once every second.  As many will know, I have always maintained the belief that there were five mechanisms within the wheel. Others think there were 8 mechanisms.  This wheel turning at almost one second per rotation made a lot of noise, as was reported many times.  Five weights hitting the side of the wheel during each second, as it turned would indeed make what Bessler refers to as a ‘loud clattering noise’. In later versions of his wheels he attempted to reduce the noise by using felt and/or springs. NB - 8 weights would make even faster ‘clattering’.

The Kassel wheel is believed to have 8 weights, according to Count Fischer, but how many mechanisms? I ask because I believe there were also five mechanism in this wheel, but the Kassel wheel and its predecessor, the Merseburg wheel were both bi-directional, or two way wheels.  This may complicate the mechanisms and could potentially lead to incorrect assumptions.  But just considering the sounds of eight weights hitting the side of the wheel, we can understand why he could only say ‘about’ eight weights.

It turned at 26 RPM which is one turn every 2.3 seconds, so 8 sounds per turn of 2.3 seconds, or 4 sounds in just over one second might well have been difficult to count, especially when you take into account other sounds which might have been made by the counter rotating  part of the mechanisms. But it was still able to lift the same amount of weight  as the Merseburg wheel.  Perhaps it was made thicker to house internal weights which were both heavier and larger.

At this point I wished to insert a couple of metronome links illustrating the high speed of the sounds of the Gera wheel and the Kassel wheel but I had some problems, but here’s one which hopefully demonstrates the sound of the 300 beats per minute of the Gera wheel

The Kassel wheel diameter 12 feet, circumference 37.7 feet,  speed 26 RPM, or 140 revolutions per mile. The rim speed was 11 mph.  A cyclist peddling at 11mph would feel a moderate breeze; walking in a 11 mph breeze is noticeably strong. Standing by the Kassel wheel which was as wide as your living room but a third higher than the ceiling, you would certainly feel the draught coming off the wheel, just as you would if a runner ran past you at the same speed - only a much stronger draught. The amount of vibration felt in the room would have been impressive, with all the thumping weights and the massive rotating drum, spinning with enough energy ‘to lift a man off his feet if he were to grab hold of it’.

The Merseburg wheel lifted 70 pound weight up the outside of the castle, and whether you take account of the pulley system or not, that is a sizeable lift, but as I’ve pointed out before, the pulleys were used to slow the demonstration down.

Demonstrating his device in front of a lot of important people required good organising.  If, for instance, the Merseburg wheel lifted the 70 pounds weight 50 feet to the top of the castle wall, as reported by professor Wolff, it would be over too quickly.  The 6 inch axle turned at least 40 times a minute.  19 inch circumference would lift the stones the 50 feet in less than a minute, but slowed four fold with pulleys would provide a longer lift and give the spectators time to move to the windows and watch about 4 minutes of lift.

My point is that there have been several attempts to estimate the energy output from Bessler’s wheel, and yet there is no way of accurately establishing its potential output.  We don’t know how many weights were used, nor their heaviness.  We don’t know the structure within the wheel, but we do know that the first three wheels could spin at about 50 RPM, later ones could lift a weight of 70 pound, and finally run for at least 54 days. We don’t know if the bi-directional wheels had less potential than the uni-directional ones. We might assume that there was little difference if the three early wheels could all rotate at 50 rpm, including the two-way Merseburg  wheel. We know the wheels were scalable up to massive sizes because Bessler tells us so, and common sense supports him.

In his Apologia Poetica Bessler writes ‘ with the help of good assistants I would have thought that something well over 20 ells in diameter would be possible, should anyone think such a thing desirable, and if the Lord should grant me the necessary strength and health’.

22 Ells is equal to 37 feet diameter!  Imagine a wheel of that size and then try toconvince everyone that it only has a small energy output.  Bear in mind that Bessler implies he will be available to help build such an enormous wheel should the need arise.  One of the largest water wheels ever built is the Laxey wheel, built in 1854 - 72.6 feet in diameter turned 3 times a minute.  According to the Domesday book, in 1089, there were over 6000 water mills in more than 3000 locations in England and Wales. Most of them were small, although wheels of more than twelve feet in diameter were plentiful in the later medieval times, so the technology and ability to build large were readily available.

One curious thing is that despite the above information there seems to be a reluctance to suggest that his wheels might have had a much larger energy output than anyone here or on BW forum might wish to be associated with.  Why I don’t know, but most machines can be made larger to achieve more and this wheel certainly fits that fact. But look at this statement from Bessler, ‘ If I were to place, next to a 12-Ell wheel, one of 6-Ells, then, if I wanted to, I could cause the smaller one to revolve with more force and useful power than the large one. I can, in fact, make 2, or 3, or even more, wheels all revolving on the same axis. Further, I make my machines in such a way that, big or small, I can make the resulting power small or big as I choose. I can get the power to a perfectly calculated degree, multiplied up even as much as fourfold.

Finally, I noticed a curious coincidence, well almost a coincidence. The first three wheels rotated at 50 RPM, one might almost think they were striving for a 60 second spin speed, only friction preventing it.  The Kassel one’s speed could be regarded as just half that of its earlier brethren.  With no load and no friction might they have automatically measured the full minute?  Just a coincidence I’m sure, but interesting, especially as there were comments about the remarkable regularity of the turning of each wheel, like clockwork.


Thursday 15 July 2021

Johann Bessler’s Use of Codes and Clues

Over my next few blogs I’ll be posting some more of Bessler’s clues and my interpretation of them, but firstly, a mystery; why did he decide to embed numerous clues and coded information in his publications?  Common sense would seem to indicate that no one would be able to decipher the coded information without Bessler’s help, and that wouldn’t happen until he had received payment for his device.  Logically once he had been paid he could reveal the method of encoding he used, so that everyone could read his explanation and know how his wheel worked.   But that might provoke anger in his purchaser.  He might not want the secret he had paid a fortune for, to be given away freely.  Perhaps his buyer would want a contract requiring Bessler’s continued silence about the machine for an agreed period?t

So even though he submitted to the demands of Karl, the Landgrave of Hesse, and permitted him access to the interior of the wheel, upon the swearing of an oath, and then Karl verified the machine and Bessler’s claim - why did he still need the information embedded secretly in his books? Karl had verified the perpetual motion machine as being genuine so Bessler had no need of a code.

It seems that no one was supposed to decipher that information before the inventor had received payment for his device.  Bessler must have been confident that his secret was safe and his code impossible to break, without his help. But if he sold the machine, again there seems no need for the code. 

When Bessler set out to discover how to design and build a Perpetual Motion (PM) machine, he had read that such a device would be ‘worth a ton of gold’.  But during the long years of research he also spent time considering how to actually obtain a large amount of money for the secret of his machine, should he be successful - sound familiar?

His first and over-riding concern was to keep the secret of his wheel’s construction secure, until he had won his ‘gold’.  Once he had constructed his working wheel he approached a number of wealthy persons of high repute, but he would not share his secret for fear of being cheated, which fact prevented him from obtaining documented verification of his claim. Eventually, as we know, Karl was allowed to examine the machine and verified it as genuine.

Given the amount of effort which is self-evident in Apologia Poetica I believe that for many months both before and after his first successful wheel, Bessler planned a publication extolling the virtues of his machine and an account of his journey to success.  This book, Apologia Poetica, would contain a number of clues and codes and would provide a printed back up of his machine’s design, albeit submerged among the texts. However, without the presence of any drawings the encoded textual message must have been extensive and very detailed.  If needed, he could call upon this message as evidence of the priority of his claim, should the need arise.  The message would have to be readily decipherable so it must have been reasonably easy to do once Bessler revealed the key.

This explains his decision to place coded information about the wheel in his books, long before he decided to allow Karl to see how his wheel worked, and why he put so much time and effort into developing and inserting his coded information, even though subsequently he had his claim validated by Karl.  He seems to have considered the possibility that he might never sell his machine and thus die without ever receiving acknowledgement for his achievement, so it had an additional purpose although not one he would have expected to happen.

The puzzle remains, why bother with such a devious code?  I have suggested that he needed some way of proving that he had found the secret by the date of publication of Apologia Poetica, but this leads to a further confusion. On the one hand he might not have been allowed to release information about his device once he had sold it, if that was the buyer’s instruction, but in that case he couldn’t reveal the code.  If the buyer was open to Bessler sharing his secret, then the codes wasn’t needed anyway. But perhaps the last possibility seems be the right one; if the wheel hadn’t been sold and another inventor claimed to have succeeded, then Bessler would reveal the means of deciphering the code embedded in the dated book, thus proving his priority.

In order to pique someone’s interest about the codes in case of illness, death, imprisonment or some other incapacitating event, he devised a straightforward clue to attract the curiosity of a knowledgeable person with the right credentials who would wish to dig deeper, and so he adopted the pseudonym, Orffyreus.

This he created from his name, Bessler, using a well-known mono-alphabetic substitution cipher called atbash,  originally used to encrypt the Hebrew alphabet.  The Caesar shift cipher was similar as is the modern algorithm known as ROT13.  The pseudonym was further refined by the addition of two extra forenames, Johann Ernst, in addition to his given name, Elias.  ‘Bessler’ was changed to ‘Orffyre’ which became ‘Orffyreus’ - an affectation used among the intelligentsia at that time.

I think the purpose of the codes and clues was two fold.  First he needed to protect his secret, hence the code; secondly he craved acceptance, recognition, respect, and admiration.  He would not stay quiet if someone else claimed to have invented a perpetual motion machine, before his own machine had been sold and this supports the idea that he was desperate for fame and fortune.

He also seems to have enjoyed teasing his audience with a number of ambiguous clues:  ‘look at me, see how clever I am! He seems to say, 

My next blog will clarify a number of factors relating to the wheels which may provide a better  impression of their power.


                                   Copyright © 2021 John Collins

Bessler’s Wheel is the answer to Global Warming.

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