Wednesday, 17 September 2014

The Legend of Bessler’s Wheel

I have replaced my usual blog with a brief account of the legend of Bessler's wheel as I am  currently too busy to devote time to writing.  My apologies to my readers and I promise I will be back as soon as possible.


The legend of Bessler’s Wheel began on 6th June 1712, when Johann Bessler announced that he had invented a perpetual motion machine and he would be exhibiting it in the town square in Gera, Germany, on that day.  Everyone was free to come and see the machine running.  It took the form of a wheel mounted between two pillars and ran continuously until it was stopped or its parts wore out. The machine attracted huge crowds.  Although they were allowed to examine its external appearance thoroughly, they could not view the interior, because the inventor wished to sell the secret of its construction for the sum of 10,000 pounds – a sum equal to several millions today.

News of the invention reached the ears of high ranking men, scientists, politicians and members of the aristocracy.  They came and examined the machine, subjected it to numerous tests and concluded that it was genuine. Only one other man, Karl, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, was allowed to view the interior and he testified that the machine was genuine. He is a man well-known in history as someone of the greatest integrity, and  the negotiations between Bessler and Karl took place against a background in which Karl acted as honest broker between the warring nations of Europe; a situation which required his absolute rectitude both in appearance and in action.

There were several attempts to buy the wheel, but negotiations always failed when they reached an impasse – the buyer wished to examine the interior before parting with the money, and the inventor fearing that once the secret was known the buyer would simply leave without paying and make his own perpetual motion machine, would not permit it.  Sadly, after some thirty years or more, the machine was lost to us when the inventor fell to his death during construction of another of his inventions, a vertical axle windmill. 

However, the discovery of a series of encoded clues has led many to the opinion that the inventor left instructions for reconstructing his wheel, long after his death.  The clues were discovered during the process of investigating the official reports of the time which seemed to rule out any chance of fraud, hence the  interest in discovering the truth about the legend of Bessler’s wheel. 

My own curiosity was sparked by the realisation that an earlier highly critical account by Bessler's maid-servant, which explained how the wheel was fraudulently driven, was so obviously flawed and a lie, that I was immediately attracted to do further research. In time I learned that there was no fraud involved, so the wheel was genuine and the claims of the inventor had to be taken seriously.
The tests which the wheel was subjected to involved lifting heavy weights from the castle yard to the roof, driving an Archimedes water pump and an endurance test lasting 56 days under lock and key and armed guard.  Bessler also organised demonstrations involving running the wheel on one set of bearings opened for inspection – and then transferring the device to a second set of open bearings, both sets having been examined to everyone’s satisfaction, both before, after and during the examination.

So the only problem is that modern science denies that Bessler's wheel was possible, but my own research has shown that this conclusion is wrong.  There is no need for a change in the laws of physics, as some  have suggested, we simply haven't covered every possible scenario in the evaluating the number of possible configurations.

I have produced copies of all Bessler's publications, with English translations.  They can be obtained by clicking on the appropriate links on the right.





  1. Sorry to read that you're overwhelmed with distractions at the moment, John. I know that situation well!

    Anyway, it's too bad we do not have more of the details of the outdoor demonstration of the Gera wheel. Most likely it was portable and mounted on a cart of some sort so it could be towed around. If so, then the fact that its vertical supports were attached to the car would not have quieted the suspicions of Bessler's critics that there was some hidden mechanism in the cart that was secretly powering the wheel.

  2. To be honest with you Ken, I have several designs in the works, a 2SO, a Keenie, a Roberval, and a traditional MT9 like OB wheel using springs. I do think you are on the right track when it comes to cords and springs in your OB approach. If a spring assists in the lifting of the weight, it pulls in the opposite direction when the wheel is inverted, which is bad since that weight also has to be lifted, so in my mind, we are looking for coordination between weights on the crossbars along with the correct angle of springs (and tension of course). This is a tough nut to crack and so far the only nut that has been cracked is mine. That said, I'm making the most progress with the 2SO. It may not be the Bessler design, but it does explain the behavior of the two-way wheels. The damn Gera really throws a wrench in the works. Had it come out after the two way wheels, then you could surmise that he found a way to store energy and use it later for the restart. Keep chugging Ken.

    1. Thanks for the well wishes, Zoelra. I feel like I'm close to finding the precise spring tensions needed in order to make my design work. But, it's very tedious work. If I get the levers working correctly in one part of the wheel, the ones in the other part do not work correctly...or, vice versa! But, I have to keep the faith that there is one particular spring tension for all of the springs that will make both groups of levers work perfectly. It's just a matter of hanging in there until I find that "sweet spot" in the spring tensions. Bessler was a master of ambiguity in the clues he left. Any particular clue can usually have several possible interpretations and one must build / modify a model based on each particular possible interpretation. It's analogous to someone taking a puzzle picture, breaking it up into its separate pieces, mixing them in with some of the pieces of several other puzzle pictures, and then dumping all of the pieces on the floor and telling someone that if he tries really hard, he will eventually manage to extract only the pieces that form the one whole picture and be able to assemble them into a complete picture! Yes, it is theoretically possible, but, even with the assistance of modeling / simulation software and a high speed computer, I am finding it to still be an daunting task. I can't even imagine trying to take this on without the use of computer modeling! Anyway, I'm hoping I'll find success by this Christmas. That would be a really nice present to put under my tree.

  3. Hi Zoelra, it is the Keno wheel. The last name of the inventor was Keno. :) Good luck on your build.

  4. @justsomeone

    Wasn't Keenie the old designation before the inventor's name was known? Anyway Keno it is.

  5. I had a rather extended session of model testing earlier today and, as usual, could not achieve the sustained imbalance of the wheel that I need to see. This is now making me question whether or not I really do have the correct connection points for a spring placed between the levers and the drum. If I did, then it should have worked. So now I'm considering an alternative approach which, possibly, can be justified by the clues in some of Bessler's illustrations. It's one that I haven't tried before so, maybe, it will finally produce positive results.

    The torques acting on the axles of Bessler's wheels were dependent upon the location of the center of mass of the weights inside of a drum. I have been assuming that, for any particular drum speed, the location of the center of mass was, more or less, fixed in space. Now I'm wondering if that is a valid assumption. The reason is because, as I monitor the location of that center during a test, I note that it seems to want to "wander" all over the place and, of course, ultimately wanders over to the ascending side of the drum where I do not want it to go. I'm even wondering if the torque on his axles might have been pulsing eight times per drum rotation so that it was the average value of maximum and minimum values.

    From working with Bessler's wheels for years now, I can see why so many "seekers after pm" are drifting over to permanent magnet motors. They have many advantages over weight driven imbalanced wheels such as no need for coordinating ropes, levers, springs, gears, or the need for a particular orientation with respect to the gravity field. Seems like for every imbalanced wheel design video I see on youtube, I'm seeing many more permanent magnet motor designs. I think that the manufacturers of the rare earth magnets used by experimenters must be making some serious cash off of the pursuit of such a device. That Yildiz motor I've referred to recently used 1200 of the small sized neodymium magnets in it! If they are $1 each, that's $1200 just for the magnets!

  6. I was under the impression that we are basically here for rediscovering what Bessler had discovered but it is very disheartening to note when someone thinks about permanent magnet motors...the very essence of being here so long is lost...maybe it is a dignified way of accepting defeat...or just an easy way out....

    1. @Ken

      The only magnet motor i've validated is Orbo, in various guises. The only worthwhile principle to take away from it, that might be migratable to Bessler, is that of temporal variance:

      - an Orbo interaction is asymmetric in that the input F x D line integral has a smaller area under the curve than the output integral, due to a delayed change in field density.

      Obviously, in gravity / mass interactions, the field density changes are instantaneous and more or less uniform anyway, however the principle of time-dependent force variations may be applicable in a purely mehcanical configuration... this is of course pure conjecture however - if i could find such an arrangement i'd be applying it already.

      But for this time-dependent changes in field density, magnets are as conservative as gravity wells - a closed loop trajectory yields zero net energy, all else being equal.

      In the simplest summarisation; the rise and fall of the field strength (the pull of gravity in our case) has to be different between input and output strokes..

      Make of that what you will..

    2. @Suresh

      I've now made over 1,000 computer models based on interpretations of the various "clues" I think Bessler left about the inner mechanics of his wheels and, so far, no success. All I do is come "close" and then think of some alternative method that might work which seems to be indicated by clues which are highly ambiguous. At some point which is rapidly approaching, I will have tried all possible interpretations of those clues and, if I still do not find success, then I will have no other choice but to call it quits. I would still believe that he did find a design that worked (but would never be able to prove it was a fact to silence the skeptics), but that it is not my destiny to rediscover it. I have many other projects that I could be investing my time that I will probably have much better success with. However, if anybody else wishes to continue the search for Bessler's secret, then they are certainly welcome to, but they should always keep in mind that the secret has remained a secret for over three centuries now and most likely will continue to remain that way despite the best effort they make. It's a really sad situation, but it's a reality that could care less about one's intellect, motivation, effort, or desperation. One writer described the search for pm as "quicksand" which is just another way of saying it's a hopeless situation that only appears to be solvable until you "invest" a lifetime in it and get absolutely nowhere. Right now, it seems to me like the permanent magnet motors are the only way to escape this quicksand and get some kind of wheel into a continuous state of rotation.


      I'm not familiar with the "Orbo interaction", but I suspect it is in agreement with what I believe is needed to construct a working permanent magnet motor: some way of changing the symmetry of the flow of energy-mass from the rotor magnets as they approach the stator magnets and then are repelled away again. If that balance can be altered even in the slightest through some clever use of shielding or geometry, then it might be possible. In fact, I think that it already has been done with the Yildiz motor.

      Meanwhile, I found this short video on youtube the other day and was impressed by what the inventor had to show. Looks like he's very close to "closing the loop' and getting a pmm running.

    3. @Ken,

      Good video. I actually built and experimented with magnet motors a few years ago and watched this guys videos then. I think he is on the right track using shielding.

    4. Glad you liked the video, Zoelra. The only question I have for him is if his shielding material is preventing magnetic flux from entering the south pole of his magnets, then where does the flux exiting the north poles of those magnets go? Does it just spread out into infinite space? If so, then it seems like he's actually made a sort of artificial monopole magnet!

      A couple of days ago I had an idea for what I call the "V pinch effect". Basically, one would mount disc magnets around the rim of a horizontally oriented wheel (like the one in the video) and these would, sequentially, be made to move through several stator assemblies that would contain magnets arranged in such a pattern so as to cause the rotor magnets (and the disc they are attached to ) to be drawn into one side of a stator assembly while being pushed out of the other side. My preliminary calculations indicate that there should be a net driving force acting on the rotor magnets. Well, if I am forced to abandon my Bessler research, I may begin to explore this concept in depth. I've found a simple way to make two pole magnets on Working Model 2D so I can test the idea out before I start purchasing magnets. If that looks good, then I may buy some Alnico disc magnets which are a lot cheaper than the rare earth ones. If it does not work with the Alnico ones, then it won't work with Neodymium ones either. Another big advantage of pmm is that, if a design's theory of operation is correct, then a small model should be able to demonstrate it. With Bessler's wheels one needs a wheel with a minimum diameter of about 3 feet in order to have a center of mass displaced far enough from the center of the axle to provide enough torque to just overcome bearing friction. Just constructing a model that size can be a task in itself and the idea of Bessler constructing a 12 foot diameter behemoth singlehandedly just leaves me awestruck.

    5. Eight levers with eight weights perform inside the wheel due to the pull of gravity...swinging is involved...we just have to think of the proper design of the lever-weight unit...a design that'ill greedily gulp up gravity...a design that is found no where in this world at the moment...a design that will out-smart the gravity's nature which brings everything to a grinding halt...a design that will make others think why it was not thought of before...a design that has out-witted almost all of us till now...a design that will change the energy scenario...a design that will make the spirit of Sir Isaac Newton blush...

    6. Ken,

      Shielding is not the correct description, but I can't think of the name. The flux actually passes thru the material easier than air so there ends up being much less (to none) flux outside the material. By properly positioning the material, you can control the shape and where you want the flux to be. I think I have some links to videos on the subject. When I get home later this evening I will look. I'm in US Central time zone.

    7. A quick search of the internet turned up what I was looking for. Magnetic shielding is the correct term. The shielding material is a metal referred to as Mu-Metal. You can buy it in tape form or various thicknesses of metal sheeting. In one of the guys older videos, he actually cuts open one of his shielded magnets and you can tell he used tape. I will still look for some relevant videos this evening.

      So now you've got my interest back. It is interesting that over the years as you learn more from your builds, you can look back at older ideas with a fresh new look.

    8. @Zoelra

      Looks like we're posting at the same time so I removed my recent comment and rewrote part of it below:

      Yes, I've heard of Mu-metal and know that it is used in electronics (or used to be) to shield RF transformers inside of radio and tv chassis. It's been around a long time.

      Mu-metal has a very high "magnetic permeability" compared to air and a magnet's flux lines will tend to "flow" through it rather than air. If one covers one pole of a magnet with some Mu-metal, then one can "conduct" the flux lines through this a piece of this material and have them come out at the other end of the piece which will then act as an extended pole of the magnet. To me, however, a "shield" actually stops the flow of flux lines, not just redirects them. With a true shield the flux lines either can not enter it or if it does, it is somehow neutralized by the shield's material.

      The inventor in the video link I posted above has another video in which he peels apart one of this stators to reveal its inner construction. It basically consists of two neodymium magnets and a plastic spacer wrapped in that sheet aluminum "flashing" used in roofing and then taped up with aluminum duct tape. What surprised me was that he also had two dead batteries inside of the stator! Apparently, he claims that these prevent the flux lines from leaving one pole of each magnet. So, his stator shielding is not just redirecting flux, but it is somehow blocking them too.

      Anyway, I don't want to get involved with shielding and will focus on pmm designs that do not use it. Such is the case with the Yildiz motor. From viewing his patent on the device, I do not see any shielding in it. Just rare earth magnets, plastic, and aluminum pieces. It's very simple, but the key to making it work is some sort of unique geometrical arrangement of the magnets. Yildiz said it took him only two years to find that unique geometry and he's already had a working pmm for about fifteen years!

  7. Mumetal, netc / conetic, various types of paramagnetic materials can all be used to focus the field and so confine it into a high-permiability material; ie. to keep it away from where it is undesired, preventing stray fields from interfering where they're unwanted.

    However the guy in that video is wrong to presume that the field is stronger or weaker on one or other side - shielding like this is NOT a way to create an asymmetric magnetic interaction, and does not violate the Maxwellian terms curl=0 / div=0 - a closed-loop trajectory through such a shaped field still yields zero net energy.

    The total magnitude of B (induced magnetisation) at either end of a dipole can only ever be equal, because a dipole is a flux vector. Such an asymmetry would be halfway to a monopole - also precluded by Maxwell (Gauss's law for magnetism).

    The only magnetic asymmetries possible are via time dependent changes in force (per Rutherford's first paper in 1885).

    What you have in mind cannot exist in electromagnetism - i'd honestly give the field a wide berth unless you're willing to devote full-time research to it. If Yildiz's motor DOES work (and he claims to have built many working models) then i cannot believe he would be capable of understanding why; which would seem to cast further doubt on his claim of many working devices - once by fluke, maybe, but many times? Defies belief. Certainly in interview he betrays himself to be entirely ignorant in the field of electromagnetism.. a garage tinkerer who maybe got lucky once, but is more than likely pulling a fast one. The large disassembled stator components in his videod university demo could easily have concealed bateries and coils. Personally i'd like to give him the benefit of the doubt, but without an easily explainable and replicable working principle he's unlikely to make it far beyond the fringe circuit.

    However, whatever you're thinking - regardless of how wrong it may be with regard to EM systems - it may still have merit in a graviational application.. so don't be too put off by my skepticism!

    I don't mean to sound cynical, i just don't want to see anyone earnestly working the Bessler case needlessly banging their heads against the EM wall when they could have worthwhile ideas for gravitational systems. I've spent years on EM systems and it's a rabit hole - lots more variables to juggle, requiring more lab kit than your average workshop and lots more effort...

  8. I've been to the point of giving up all Bessler research in the past several times and, in every case, some idea pops into my head at the last minute that manages to draw me back in again. It's a very difficult "virus" to get out of one's brain. But, this time I've made up my mind. If I don't see something very impressive by the end of this year, then I will call it quits and delete any models, notes, etc. I've accumulated to help assure I do not return to the subject again. Until then I will try to continue my usual pace of research by studying the clues I've found and building / modifying various wm2d models.

    Yes, I "burned out" on pmm several decades ago. But, I did not have access to computer modeling back then as I now do and wasted much time and effort with handmade models. With computer modeling available, I might be able to find that special geometry that would make such a device workable. The situation might be analogous to the arrangement of panels attached to a windmill's rotor axle. Unless they are all pitched at the right angles, the axle will either not turn or turn inefficiently. When the panels are all at the right pitch and the axle pointed in the right direction, then the rotor will spin with maximum efficiency.

    I agree that Yildiz, as a retired Turkish police officer, is probably not an expert on electromagnetism. But, then again, one could have said that Bessler, as a largely self-educated craftsman, was not an expert on gravity or physics. Yet, here we are discussing what he achieved! I am impressed that Yildiz allows the skeptics at his university demonstrations to handled the disassembled components of his device. The only way he could be pulling a hoax on them would be if he somehow cleverly hid lithium ion batteries inside of the device's parts and the stator magnets were really carefully disguised electromagnets that were being turned on and off sequentially by a complex system of field effect transistors. Yes, it could be faked, but, imo, Yildiz would have to be an electronics expert to cook up such a hoax!

  9. Like i say, a rabbit hole of possibilities there...

    But one certainty with regards to gravitational / mass systems is that there's fewer variables than with EM systems - and crucially, no analog of Sv.

    In other words, it HAS to be Bessler's mechanism that's accomplishing the asymmetric interaction, rather than any manipulation of field properties themselves (since no such manipulation is physically possible - ie. field density, response frequency etc. are all hard-wired and efectively constant).

    This pretty much guarantees that if we can suss Bessler's mechanism, it can be used with magnetic fields instead of gravity. It wouldn't be infringing Steorn or anyone else's work.. it'd blindside the whole magnet-motor field.

    It'd be the ultimate PM win. Bessler's mechanism is a general purpose OU mechanism. A universal perpetual motion machine... and without having to master or even learn anything about the EM field per se..

    1. I've been chasing that white rabbit of pm down rabbit holes all of my life! Only this evening I suddenly had another "epiphany" with regards to Bessler's wheels. Basically, I realized that all of the problems I am having with my designs boil down to determining exactly what happens when one of the levers in a clockwise rotating drum moves from its 7:30 to 10:30 positions. I think if I can get this straightened out, with the help of the clues he left, I might actually finally find success. But, again, I'm putting a strict limit of the end of this year for that to happen. After that, I'm either out or due for a long "sabbatical"!

      I agree that, once Bessler's mechanism is found, then there should be no reason why it can not be made to work with other than gravitational force like, for instance, buoyant, magnetic, electric, or even spring tension forces. However, although I agree that dealing with magnetic forces is always going to be more "messy" than with gravity, magnetic forces are far stronger than gravity and that permits the construction of smaller and more power "dense" devices. I'm imagining a rotary device, perhaps only the size of 1 gallon milk container, that could continuously output about 1 kilowatt of mechanical power. Ten of these coupled together to a small 240 VAC generator could power a home with only the occasional maintenance / repair costs of the devices and the generator. With all of the negative talk in the media about the "climate change" (formerly "global warming") caused by the use of fossil fuels, the time for the development and introduction of such self motive devices has never been better.

  10. There is still plenty of corporate and paid political resistance to alternative energy devices such as solar and wind. Solar devices are already regulated not to exceed 10% efficiency and still their usage is taxed.

    Do you really think US politicians would allow a free energy creating Bessler Wheel to enter the US market? I don't think so.

  11. Thanks for the link to the article, Zoelra. Yes, with the ever increasing reality of "climate change", the fossil fuel utilities' profits are in great jeopardy and they don't like it one bit. Their philosophy is to burn as much fossil fuels as cheaply as possible until the last drop of oil or cubic foot of gas is used up and, only then, start to get serious about alternative energy sources. And, of course, they dismiss any negative environmental effects that will occur as minor ones that will automatically correct themselves in time. Any talk of a "runaway" Greenhouse effect or rising ocean levels is just fear mongering as far as they are concerned. What really counts they say, is jobs, jobs, jobs (and the enormous profits they will generate for the 10% of world that owns 90% of the wealth although they rarely mention this little detail). Well, I think there's a whole new reality coming in the near future. Eventually, Earth will be just one huge socialist state where people will be guaranteed a minimum yearly income and will not be able to exceed a maximum amount. There will be no more multi billionaires living in luxury while children in Third World countries are eating out of garbage dumps. Yes, there are some big changes coming and they're getting closer every day. I see an important role for self motive machinery in all of this, but only if an undeniably functioning device can be demonstrated. Right now, the closest I see to that is the Yildiz motor. I'm not convinced it's a fake. Time will tell.

  12. Here's another very important, imo, clue from AP:

    "I don't want to go into the details here of how suddenly the excess weight is caused to rise. You can't comprehend these matters, or see how true craftsmanship can rise above innate lowly tendencies (as does a weight above the point of application of a lever)" - pg 357

    Here Bessler seems to imply that the shifting of the levers and their attached weights inside of a drum that results in the raising of the center of mass of the weights on a drum's descending side is not taking place continuously throughout a 45 degree segment of clockwise drum rotation. I have tried many models in which I have such a continuous shifting taking place and they all failed to keep the center on the drum's descending side. I am now convinced that the shifting is far more rapid than I had previously believed. The question for me is: Does this rapid shifting occur at the beginning or near the end of each 45 degree segment of drum rotation. I'm now in the process of trying both approaches to see which one keep that center floating on the drum's descending side. I also remember another quote about how the weights in his wheels "rise in a flash" or something like that, but have been unable to find it. Back to work.

  13. good point.....Actually, it is a very simple matter but extremely difficult to visualize if one doesn't perform hard homework...the rising happens in a flash...the rising starts happening right from 6 O clock on wards...all this would be possible only if you get rid of the notion of using springs and ropes...these ropes would only act as hindrance or obstacles...Bessler mentions using ropes but the ropes were only used in his unworkable wheels...sometimes I admire Ken's dedication and in depth knowledge but I fail to understand why he is miserably stuck with the rope idea...

    1. The ropes are necessary to coordinate the swinging motions of the levers. They also allow the descending side levers and weights to assist in the lifting of the ascending side levers and weights. No, the "rising" of the levers and weights can not start at 6 o'clock. At the 6 o'clock position of the drum the weights are still in contact with the rim. From 6 o'clock to 9 o'clock the weights and levers must drop away from the rim and stretch springs as they do. I believe it is from 9 o'clock on that the levers and weights begin to rise again toward the rim. They do not make final contact until they are well down onto the descending side of the drum. There is no way to make such a design work with just ropes. It that was possible then practically all of the imbalanced wheel designs in MT with ropes would be workable. They are not despite many efforts to build actual models of them. Springs are very important. The problem is, imo, trying to find the correct placement of the springs, the constants they need to have, and how much they need to stretch in order to keep the levers and weights shifting exactly as they must during drum rotation so as to keep the center of mass of all of the levers and weights on the drum's descending side. This is no easy task as my 1000+ failed attempts well demonstrate. But, hope springs eternal. No matter how many failures one has, there is always the possibility that the next attempt will find success. But, once again, if I do not find that success by the end of this year, then it will be time for me to "retire" from Bessler research and leave it to others to pursue and I wish them the best of luck. They will need it! My future research focus will then be on permanent magnet motors, but, this time, I will be doing my construction on a computer monitor before I actually try to build something. If I can't make it work with a computer model, then I don't think an actual physical model will work and I will not waste time building one.

  14. Ken,

    Bessler said:
    "If I arrange to have just one cross-bar in my machine, it revolves very slowly, just as if it can hardly turn itself at all, but, on the contrary, when I arrange several bars, pulleys and weights, the machine can revolve much faster"

    If a “pulley” has the same meaning today as it had then, then ropes or cords of some sort would be required.

    Have you thought about creating a 4 weight design using 2 crossbars in a + orientation, with the unique levers and weights at the ends of the crossbars? Since Bessler said it would work, it may be easier to find the correct placements using a simpler approach.

    Here is something else. Instead of thinking of how to shift the weights outward, what if the weights are spring loaded to the outer position, and you have to pull them in on the ascending side. Kind of a reverse approach.

    1. I think there is a lot of misunderstanding about that quote you cited due to a somewhat poor translation. I believe that Bessler in this quote is referring to something that was external to his wheel's axle and drum. I think he is referring to some sort of compound pulley system used with a rope from the axle in order to lift weights outside of the drum. The "cross bar" refers to a metal pin that was passed through a metal or wooden frame and which had a rope pulley mounted on it. With only one such pin and pulley, one would have placed the entire external load to be lifted directly on the wheel's axle and there would be no amplification of the lifting power of the axle. By inserting extra pins and pulleys into the frame, Bessler could make a compound pulley system that would increase the lifting power of the wheel's axle. But, there was a interesting effect associated with this. As a weight to be lifted got more massive, he would have had to add more pulleys and the axle would then feel less counter torque working on it. That, of course, meant that the wheel could run at a higher speed. But, again, I need to emphasize that, imo, this quote has nothing to do with the internal mechanics of a wheel.

      Yes, I have tried many designs that had weights held against the outer rim by spring tension which were then "pulled in" using different methods. Unfortunately, all of the methods require that something be "stationary" inside of the drum and in my designs this was some sort of heavy pendulum hanging on the axle. Bessler said that in a "true perpetual motion nothing is stationary on the axle". He was right! All that happens in these designs is that, as the spring loaded weight is pulled back against a spring on the wheel's ascending side, the "stationary" pendulum they are attached to then just swings out onto the wheel's ascending side in reaction and the result is that the center of mass of the wheel's outer weights and the massive pendulum weight hanging on the axle is always located right below the drum's axle. Any design that at any time puts the center of mass of its various weights below the axle will eventually "settle" into that orientation and will have no torque for acceleration.

      The approach I use is the one I believe Bessler used. In this design, the weights automatically shift themselves. In this design during clockwise drum rotation, weights moving from 6 o'clock to 9 o'clock are constantly lose gravitational potential energy. But, that lost energy is not converted directly into kinetic energy, but, rather, is temporarily stored by stretching springs attached to the levers to which the weights are attached. Then, later, between the drum's 9 o'clock and 4:30 o'clock positions the stored energy in the springs is used to help lift the weights back to the drum's periphery. This automatic and continuous action then keeps lifting the center of mass of all of the weights as the drum rotates so that center remains, more or less, fixed in position in space. There is a very precise balance involved in this process which, unfortunately, I have still not been able to find. But, I'm sure it's there whether I'm the one to find it or not.

    2. Just as an addendum to my reply above, here is an image of what Bessler's "compound pulley system" might have looked like. The word being translated as "cross-bar" refers, I believe, to the extra pins that would have been inserted into the frame pieces in order to support additional pulleys. When only one cross-bar and pulley are present in a frame, the lifting power of the axle is only increased by a factor of one which means it is unchanged. With two cross-bars and pulleys present in the frames, the axle's lifting power is doubled, but twice as much rope will be wound around the axle during lifting. With four cross-bars and pulleys present in the frames, the axle's lifting power is quadrupled, but four times as much rope will be wound around the axle during lifting. As more cross-bars and pulleys are added, the axle's lifting power will continue to increase and even more rope will have to be wound around the axle. With each increase in the axle's lifting power, it feels less counter torque acting on it from the rope and the drum driving it can then turn at a higher speed.

  15. If it was there you would have found it by now....the precise balance.....there is nothing of that sort involved actually...weights don't have to go to the periphery......they swing and hit the periphery then reach the 6 O clock position and from here the magic begins to happen which is really not understood by most. Springs are not used for storing and retrieving energy....this myth is the greatest misleading factor...never ever worry about center of mass....this will happen automatically when the design is right...there is a special movement of levers carrying the weight inside the wheel and when this is realized through exhaustive brain racking everything will become you say, spring loaded weight is not pulled back against a spring on the wheel's ascending side....actually, the springs are not connected to the weights but to the levers to assist to increase swing speed....another thing which is misconceived very badly by you is that the weights are actually lifted on the ascending side...No....the matter is entirely different....if i start to divulge more here the cat will be get out of the bag....

    1. Springs are not used for storing energy? Never worry about the center of mass? I don't think so. If one does not keep the center of mass of his weights on the wheel's descending side at all times, then he will not be able to achieve pm.

      Every single imbalanced wheel design that I've seen that failed tried to make large and sudden shifts of the weights inside the wheel and also tried to keep the center of mass of the weights far away from the center of rotation of the wheel as possible and, usually, at the same vertical height as the axle. These approaches are intended to maximize axle torque and certainly look good on paper and in MT, but are unworkable in practice. What was going on in Bessler's wheels, imo, was far more subtle than this. While there was fairly rapid shifting of of the ascending side weights moving between 6:00 o'clock and 9:00 o'clock, all of the weights from 9 o'clock to 4:30 o'clock were only moving slowly back toward their stops on a drum's periphery during each 45 degree segment of drum rotation. When weights at the end of the levers finally landed on their stops around 4:30 o'clock, they were actually being almost gently lowered into place and were not hitting with any significant momentum.

    2. Ken,

      I have often wondered what the weight shifting must have looked in your design. I call it your design, but I understand it is based on your interpretation of Bessler clues. What was confusing to me was how weights would shift inward rapidly from 6 to 9, then outward slowly from 9 to 4:30 (in a CW rotating wheel). I was looking at MT9 the other day and noticed that is exactly what is happening in that design. The hanging weights at 6 begin moving inward (relative to the axle) up to 9, then after 9, the weights begin shifting outward all the way to around 4:30. MT9 seems to fit the behaviors you mention. The slack in the cording shown in MT9 would need to be controlled/coordinated so the weights exerting downward force on the descending side, maintain a pull on the weights on the ascending side (after 9). So this is how I see the basic movements in your design.

    3. MT9: "Because one has learned that little is to be accomplished with the sphere-wheels like those just now seen in the figures and diagrams, one speculates on another principle, namely: on weights! In all places where I have found weight-figures, these weights are seen to be simple and nothing is attached to the belts or chains. Such is the case with Leopold, but nothing is to be accomplished with his thing unless one acts out of my connectedness principle; but here I do not yet wish to show or discuss the figure for the time being."

      Two key clues may be

      "... these weights are seen to be simple and NOTHING is attached to the belts ..."

      "... NOTHING is to be accomplished with his thing unless one acts out of my connectedness principle ..."

    4. Yes, Zoelra, the design I am working on is, basically, very much like MT 9, but a bit more complicated as to the shape of the levers. As you noted, the weights at the end of its levers swing in toward the axle from 6 o'clock to 9 o'clock and then begin swinging outward again after 9 o'clock until they finally make contact with wooden stops attached to the inside of the wheel's periphery around 4:30 o'clock. Only the use of interconnecting ropes between the levers and carefully placed springs with the correct constants placed between the levers and drum can make this possible.

      Those quotes included with MT 9 were Bessler's way of telling us that one must use interconnecting ropes between his wheel's levers if the design is to work. He dismisses a wheel design published earlier by Jacob Leupold as being unworkable because it lacks these important features; that is, no interconnecting ropes between its levers. Leupold's design was somewhat similar to MT 9. It placed a dozen short levers with weights attached to their ends near the periphery of a wheel. The levers, upon wheel rotation, would flip between sets of pins placed into the solid disc of the wheel which acted as stops. On paper, it looks like it should keep the center of mass of its dozen weights on the wheel's descending side, but, of course, it does not.

    5. Bessler himself was observed to have stated that the springs were not used as suggested by the detractors...this clearly goes to say that springs were not used for storing or retrieving energy...and what I stated was that if the design was right then the center of mass would take care of itself...shifting of the weights is rapid but this doesn't requires the use of springs...there is another secret method for achieving it and this is not understood by many so they feel that spring use is mandatory...rapid shifting of weights happen from 6 to 12 o clock...eight thumping sound heard denotes weights landing hard on the descending side periphery...otherwise how do you justify the eight sounds?...

    6. Bessler's detractors erroneously thought that he was using springs similar to the large spiral main springs found in windup clock movements of the time and Bessler stated that, although his wheels did use springs, they were not used in the same way his detractors thought. Bessler's springs, imo, were simple helical coil or extension springs. They were meant to be stretched by the weight carrying levers between the 6:00 o'clock and 9:00 o'clock positions of the drum as the drum rotated clockwise. I have tried dozens of designs that used only ropes between the levers and none were able to maintain the configuration of the levers necessary to keep the center of mass of their weights on the drum's descending side. If you have found some "secret method" of doing this, then I'm sure we would all like to hear more about it. Personally, I think it's impossible and that the only option is use of stretched springs. Yes, there were eight impact sounds heard per drum rotation on a wheel's descending side, but they were described as "gentle". I believe those weights were just being slowly lowered into a resting position on their stops on the drum's periphery. His wheels were not moved by any impacts from these weights and, iirc, he also states somewhere that pm can not be achieved with impacts. In fact, I think he mentions in MT that such impacts could actually destroy a wheel!

    7. Found it! Here's part of the notation for MT 52:

      "...I will only say the following: no wheel is moved through strong blows, for paddles would sooner dash it into 1000 pieces, and it would be utterly destroyed with bullets, as is sufficiently known."

      I'm not sure what the reference to "paddles" is, but I think the "bullets" part refers to heavy lead weights hitting stops inside of a wheel's drum.

    8. If the Bullet part refers to the lead weights then the paddles could refer to the levers....the wheel movement is not a result of the weights hitting hard at the is due to the descending weights' action...if stretched springs are connected to the weights they wouldn't last very long so it is better we forget this option...I am sure Bessler didn't use this option...a heavy duty wheel would certainly not depend on springs....a very novel basic movement is involved....I will try to explain this without giving away much...see, in the electric motor design the movement is achieved by using coils of wire on armature in a magnetic field...there is no spring use involved....similarly, in an internal combustion engine the movement is achieved by the action of piston and cylinder where an explosive mixture gets ignited....again no springs...and, in the case of the classical windmill, there are no springs involved to achieve motion...also take for example the steam engine where again no springs are used...then why should we go on harping on the use of springs in the case of Bessler's wheel?....
      Mechanical PM (Bessler Wheel) means continuous movement obtained from the falling weights…and these weights are quite heavy and repeatedly keep falling and if they are attached to springs the springs would get stretched after sometime and would lose their tension… it’s use is only thought of by persons who can’t really can’t think of any alternate methods…or by ones who have not actually discovered what Bessler actually discovered…

    9. I'm thinking a better translation for that quote above might be:

      "...I will only say the following: no wheel is moved by heavy weights striking on paddles because, obviously, these paddles would quickly be smashed into 1000's of pieces."

      I think the "paddles" referred to here are those blade-like structures attached to the axle inside of a drum as depicted in MT 21 and MT 23. But, this comment by Bessler could apply equally to those stops attached to the periphery of a wheel as shown in MT 18. My design uses the periphery mounted stops as shown in MT 18.

      @Suresh. Again I would disagree about the springs being used in Bessler's wheels because he admitted that he used them! No springs used in an internal combustion engine? I used to repair automobiles and the valves that control the flow of gases into and out of the cylinders as combustion takes place use spring tension in order to close and seal the cylinder. Without such springs the engine could not run! You say that "Mechanical PM...means continuous movement obtained from falling weights...". The problem is that there must be some means available that restores those weights to their starting positions again or the wheel will not turn very long. Springs are the only way, imo, of achieving that necessary lifting action and doing it continuously as a wheel rotates.

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    11. Springs aren't the only way to restore weights at their starting positions....and springs are only required to make the levers swing instead of attaching them to the weights they should be connected to the levers in such a way that no much strain and stress act on the springs...please try to understand what I am trying to convey...this way the springs would last much longer....they are not to be given the main task of lifting the levers....for this there is another interesting method...gravity has to be utilized for this...gravity can act in both ways...for bringing the weights down as well as for even lifting them....when you realize this you have hit the jackpot....this is the million dollar question in the bessler wheel design....even Bessler did not get this idea that easily....this is the whole thing about Bessler wheel mystery....that is also the reason why Bessler didn't want anyone to have a peek inside...this also refers to that artful is an extremely simple design of the lever but curiously doesn't occurs to is induced in the mind when the mind sincerely approaches to solve the is a sort of god gift...many even now wouldn't give any serious thought to this....

      It makes the weights reach their starting point without the aid of allows gravity to aid the smooth movement of weights from the ascending side to the descending side very performs this job very makes one side of the wheel always very is a very cool idea never considered by anyone before...

    12. @Suresh. You've said some things I can agree with. None of the springs in my design are attached directly to the weights. They are all attached to the levers. Also, the springs do not do the entire job of lifting the ascending side weights. A large share of the lifting is done by simple counter balancing of the ascending side weights by the descending side weights. The more I study the internal mechanics of Bessler's wheels, the more I am impressed with how carefully balanced its various parts were and how efficient the design was. Virtually no energy is wasted with friction, air drag, or sound production and practically all of it goes directly into continuously lifting the center of mass of the weights at a rate that exactly equals its rate of descent at any particular drum speed.

  16. Just a quick update,
    section one on my model works exactly as expected, but the moving weight doesn't travel far enough.
    Simple to fix using a two stage pulley.
    Will finish the other sections later, I'll keep you informed as to my progress.

    1. Good luck Stevo, pleased your still here.


    2. Hi John,
      I decided to just report my findings, and not get involved in anything else that would cause disgruntlement !
      It's pretty good news so far, I've set up the opposite side to the first section, to see if it would over balance, and it does.
      This is not a fluke of imbalance due to a crude modeling technique, if the wheel is turned 180 deg. it overbalances again.
      The surprising thing is, the wheel turns 55 deg. !
      To me that would indicate the use of 8 mechanisms.
      The wheel also self starts.
      This points to the necessity to build a larger, more accurate model.
      I'll start with four spokes, and maybe it'll cut down on build time, but just to be sure, the construction will have space to fit four more spokes if need be.

    3. More good news,
      two more segments, 110 deg. rotation.

  17. I did more testing on my wheel today and have sort of painted myself into a corner with it. I'm sure I now have the correct spring constants and their attachment points to the levers and drums. But, when I increase their tension to the point where they support the upper drum levers in their correct starting orientations, then the lever moving to the 7:30 drum position will not swing into its correct orientation there. Then, if I decrease the spring tensions so that happens, the upper drum levers will not maintain their correct starting orientations! I actually thought that I had finally reached a concrete wall that I could not get passed and was even beginning to think I might start my "retirement" from Bessler research a few months earlier than the end of this year!

    Then, as usual, a few hours later a possible way out of this "no win" situation suddenly occurred to me. The solution to this apparently unsolvable problem may be that I simply need to add one more rope to the ones already in the design. I'm working on that approach now and trying to see if I can find any evidence for this extra rope in the Bessler clues. I try to keep my number of ropes in a wheel design to an absolute minimum, but if I need to add an extra one (times 8 for all 8 levers, of course), then I have to do it. When it comes to pm wheel research, the end justifies the means just so long as you do not violate Newton's three Laws of Motion and the Conservation of Energy - Mass Law in the process.

  18. This comment has been removed by the author.

  19. I've had a small revelation in the last few hours. I think I finally figured out why my previous several hundred wm2d wheel models had absolutely no chance of working. The simple reason is that Bessler's "connectedness principle" actually consists of several parts. I had all but the last of those parts. Now I think I've found what the remaining missing part is. If I'm right, then success could be only a matter of days away!

  20. Seems like this blog has again been posted, so let me just add this here in case that later repeat disappears.

    As I mentioned, I am convinced that I finally have all of the parts of Bessler's "connectedness principle" and the design I have now is probably the most advanced one I've ever produced. It is also the most delicately balanced one I've ever produced. In order to work properly, it's springs have to be adjusted to a very precise tension by stretching them just a bit which means that the eight levers in the design are under steady spring tension. It's amazing how much just a change in stretched length of a fraction of an inch will make in the precarious counter balancing of the levers in the design. I still have not worked out what the proper adjustment procedure should be for anyone who undertakes the actual physical construction of this design and, if more testing shows that it does keep the center of mass of its weights on the wheel's descending side continuously as it rotates, then coming up with an adjustment procedure will be my next project. But, right now, everything is looking very good and I am getting ready for the final testing phase.

    As I've mentioned in prior blogs, I've always been interested in magnetic pm devices and I previously posted a link to a permanent magnet motor built by a Turkish inventor named Yildiz. I am convinced it is real and revolutionary. But, his device is still mechanical in nature. Below is a link to a magnetic device, an "over unity magnetic transformer" that also looks very interesting. Yes, I know it could be faked. But, if it is not a hoax, then it is even more impressive than the Yildiz motor! It has no moving parts and in other videos I've seen of it, it puts out about 70 watts! I think its some sort of variation of the "Hubbard Generator" which is a device I tried to duplicate years ago without success.


After a PoP Demonstration, Peer Review and Acceptance.

I think that when Bessler’s wheel actually works and is developed into what ever is proven to be its best evolution, it will confirm the op...