Thursday 7 March 2024

Bessler’s Perpetual Motion Machine

Almost everyone has what one might call their own ‘thing’, maybe a hobby or an obsession, but it’s something that captures their attention and interest -  and my own ‘thing’ involves trying to verify the claims of Johann Bessler (aka Orffyreus).  After almost half a century of research in a number of famous institutions holding numerous ancient books and documents, I have been able to establish that in the years approaching 1712, Johann Bessler’s did indeed build a successful working model of a perpetual motion machine.  Despite the assumption that such machines are impossible it has become obvious that his claims were genuine.

My first shadow of doubt about the establishment’s view on this matter came when I read an explanation attempting to show how his machine was faked; it was so badly written and so full of false assumptions and unbelievable mistakes, that I questioned the underlying evidence relied upon and I believe it was almost entirely guesswork.

Surely such a device if false, should be easy enough to prove an illicit imposition. Such fraudulent devices are the target of many investigators who are usually are well equipped to test the credibility of the claimant.  Bessler frequently experienced such negative reactions at his first exhibitions, but was able, through the help of one of the most famous scientists of the era, Gottfried Leibniz, to plan a number of demonstrations which would prove to be impossible to reject, as convincing evidence of the inventor’s integrity.

In addition he permitted a man of unimpeachable reputation who was widely respected to examine the interior workings of the machine in order to confirm or deny its validity.  Karl, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel was able to verify Bessler’s claims. So what are we to make of this apparent paradox?

Between 1842 and 1847 Julius Robert von Mayer, James Prescott Joule and Herman von Helmholtz discovered and formulated the basics of what we refer to as the law of conservation of energy.  Energy can’t be created or destroyed, it can only be transformed from form to another.

But in their denial of the possibility of a gravity enabled continuous motion machine, though their reasoning was logical it failed to take into account every possible configuration that might over ride their conclusion.  This fallacy has been questioned countless times, and from a time long before it was first mooted.  There are records of hundreds of attempts to produce a perpetual motion machine reliant on the force of gravity for its energy source.  

One argument suggests that because no such machine has ever been invented, it must be impossible.  If that conclusion were convincing most of the current inventions in use today would never have happened.  But Johann Bessler did find the solution and there should therefore be a concerted attempt to find it again.  The potential for such a device is unlimited in this era of climate change, pollution, and the limited sources of alternative energy.

Bessler encoded information in his books which he intended to be found and deciphered in the event of his death before he had sold his machine.  It is available from this blog and my other web sites where each of his four books with full English translations are detailed. See the right hand panel for more information.

JC

58 comments:

  1. Hi John, do you have an email address where I can send you some very important messages? I'm from Germany and have read your translations of Johan Bessler's books. I have studied these books myself. Unfortunately, there are some misinterpretations in the translation from Old German to English.

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    1. To anonymous 02:43 , please post what you think the translations should be, on here where I can read it also.

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  2. Yes please post your information here anon 02:43. Thank you.

    JC

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  3. Anonymous 02:43..also PLEASE..if you can..when Bessler said that "one side" is FULL and the other was EMPTY..("as it should be") .did the German phrase/word "side" mean one HALF of the wheel is full or one EDGE is full? And (me being greedy)..when Bessler speaks about "children playing among the columns with clubs"...can you give any better translation/interpretation/visual description of what that is? thanks!

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    1. When Bessler said "On one side it is heavy and full; on the other empty and light, just as it should be." he was just stating that, in his overbalanced pm wheels, the center of mass of a wheel's weights was always located on one side of the drum which became the wheel's descending side as it rotated. The other side of the drum did not contain the center of mass and so was empty.
      He was NOT saying that all of a wheel's weights were somehow kept on one side of the drum while the other side had no weights in it. Many have wasted much time trying to make wheels like that. In Bessler's wheels the weights were equally distributed around a wheel's drum, but the ones on the ascending side were always a little closer to the axle than the ones on the descending side. The principle is simple. Achieving it in practice is not.

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  4. I think there is a mistranslation there which was identified on the forum back in 2022! It reads “ The word(s) translated in John's AP incorrectly as "clubs" should instead be translated as "marbles"

    JC

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    1. The translation I saw was

      "Children play among the broken columns with loud heavy clubs.

      which makes a lot more sense to me than

      "Children play among the broken columns with loud heavy marbles.

      I think the "broken columns" were the vertical wooden support beams with the cut outs in them for the axle end bearings and the "loud heavy clubs" were the wooden stamps of the detachable stamping mill being raised and dropped by the metal pins on a wheel's rotating axle causing the stamps to make loud pounding sounds as they hit an empty box below them that acted like a amplifier. Those metal pins would be the "children". Maybe the pins reminded Bessler of a group of kids running around and playing?

      Unfortunately, like 99.9% of Bessler's writings, this tells us absolutely nothing about how his pm wheels actually worked.

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    2. Die Kinder spielen auf den SÃulgen
      Mit lauter schweren Schniebe-KÃulgen;

      The children play on the small columns
      with loud heavy marbles;

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    3. Thank you Anon 02:43 / 02:56 ! (From Anon 22:30)

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    4. marbles means balls, spheres

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  5. I looked at a video on marbles, holding one in your hand you flick it with your thumb which sets it into motion, the question is what flicks them in the bessler wheel . There must be something that does that, I do not know, but maybe a catapult !

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  6. " A little closer to the axle " ? Sorry, but Bessler said nothing is to be accomplished by moving weights " a little closer to the axle ".

    Justsomeone

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    1. AP, pg 295:

      "I’d like, at this point, to give a brief description of it. So then, a work of this kind of craftsmanship has, as its basis of motion, many separate pieces of lead. These come in pairs, such that, as one of them takes up an outer position, the other takes up a position nearer the axle."

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  7. This is a rare 18th century painting that shows a Bessler rival inventor completing the construction of his latest pm wheel which he was 100% convinced would work and be even more powerful than any of Bessler's wheels!

    https://postimg.cc/WddpqRM3

    His name was Gottfried Schnickelbacher and he died at the age of 94 in 1753 in Leipzig. Unfortunately, none of his wheels ever worked. But the next morning on his death bed they found a notebook next to his cold corpse that contained a detailed drawing of his newest design which he was planning on building right after he recovered from a severe chest cold that he had been suffering from. Sadly, we will never know if it would have worked.

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    1. A.I generated art and a soppy story to boot , try again .

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    2. Schnickelbacher? Yes, I do vaguely recall Bessler mentioning him somewhere in his books. I'd sure like to see what his "death bed" pm wheel design looked like.

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    3. @anon 22:59
      I looked through all of my Bessler material and I cannot find the name "Schnickelbacher" anywhere. I think you are confusing it with the name of a real person, "Jungnickel", who Bessler mentions in the note to MT2. Jungnickel wrote a book on mechanics titled "Key to Mechanics" and Bessler must have read it at some time.

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    4. Correct. Anon 04:48. Thanks.

      JC

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    5. @anon 22:59

      Years ago I communicated with an older man who claimed to be an expert on obscure inventions of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. He mentioned many inventors that I had never heard of before and some of the remarkable mechanical inventions they had made. He even sent me a CD that contained hundreds of original drawings of these inventions that he had copied from various rare books on mechanics. In some cases, if a drawing was too faded, he would make an accurate newer version of it. I don't remember what I did with that CD, but I rarely throw anything away so it's most likely here somewhere buried under all of the clutter in my rat's nest apartment. If I can find that CD, I'll check it to see if there's anything on it by Schnickelbacher. Like others here, I've never heard of him before and I'm starting to think this is all just an elaborate hoax. But, maybe not and it's certainly worth checking out if it can bring us closer to achieving any kind of working pm machine.

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    6. Eureka! I tore my apartment apart and found a small dust covered cardboard box containing about two dozen old CD's. I think one of them is the one that past correspondent of mine sent me with the rare invention images on it. Now I have a new problem. My current laptop does not have a built in CD player in it and the one in my old laptop no longer works. But, I'm sure that I have a small external CD player around here somewhere that I can plug into a usb port on my new laptop and use. I'll keep looking until I find it and then see what's on that disc. If I cannot find it, then there will be a delay until I can borrow one from a friend.

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    7. Good news! I found my old external usb CD drive which still works and was able to again open and read the contents of that CD my friend mailed to me many years ago on my new laptop. It contains image files for about 200 inventions. The few I viewed have the name of the inventor attached to them along with a date and are original images from published documents. He divided the files into three groups which were inventions from the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries with most of them from the 18th century. I don't have the patience to go through all of the files so I will just concentrate on the ones for the middle of the 18th century.

      If I find anything that he attributed to Gottfried Schnickelbacher, then I will try uploading it to that postimages site most here use and then put a link to it in my next comment here. I've never done anything like that before, but I'll give it a try tomorrow if I have some time.

      I'm about 99% sure this will be a complete waste of my time and effort, but maybe I'll find something else that some may find of interest.

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    8. I FOUND SOMETHING!!!

      I went through about 40 of the 18th century invention images on my CD. Most were oversized factory machines for doing things like cutting logs or pounding heated metal into different shapes. Some were for various hoists used to load cargo on ships. A few were for weird looking water wheels and even something that looked like a mechanical arm. Then I found this one and almost fell off of my chair!

      https://postimg.cc/dhXYJ51j

      It was very precisely drawn by the man who sent it to me, but that does not surprise me because he was a retired mechanical engineer and a draftsman. It must have been his version based on a faded drawing he obtained and I assume he added all of the letters and labels to it. The important thing is that he attributed it to "G. Schnickelbacher" and says it's from the "mid 18th century" which would put it around the time that Gottfried Schnickelbacher supposedly died.

      The drawing is not labeled as a pm wheel though. I'm no expert in mechanics, but it looks like the principle is that, as those four large outer gears roll clockwise around a stationary "ring gear" attached to two side posts, the four large gears cause the four lead balls to slowly rotate around their individual axles in such a way as to always cause the center of gravity of the four lead ball weights to stay a little to the right side of the center of the wheel's axle. At the bottom of his drawing he mentions that there were two additional posts to support the wheel's axle which are not shown. The main horizontal central axle to which the four long radial arms of the wheel are attached would be pointing straight at the viewer.

      I lack the mechanical aptitude to tell if this machine could work or not as a pm wheel and will leave that to others with more competence in mechanics to judge. For all I know, this could have been a design for some sort of mechanical coffee bean grinder! But, then again, we've been told Schnickelbacher was a rival of Bessler who was also chasing after pm wheels so what else could it be? Maybe it was Schnickelbacher's "death bed" wheel?

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    9. Whoa! I thought all this had to be a hoax until I saw that pm wheel design. It's not a hoax, imo, because it looks like it would have to work if it always stays OOB as it turns. I
      It's depressing to think that old Schnickelbacher finally found his runner and then dropped dead before he could build it. It's actually a sadder ending then Bessler had when you think about it. At least Bessler knew for a fact he had finally succeeded. Life just isn't fair.

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    10. Assuming this alleged Schnickelbacher pm wheel actually worked, it would not emit any thumping impact sounds as it rotated like the drums of Bessler's wheels did because its swinging weights never hit anything. Maybe at most it would produce the constant whirring sound of meshing gears. I like that it does not use any springs or ropes. I think trying to sim this wheel would be next to impossible with any kind of 2D sim software. The simmer will need to use 3D software and it would have to be able to accurately sim bevel gears. Trying to actually build it would also be a real challenge. However, it might be possible using 3D printing techniques.

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    11. That image has been posted before , looks like an attempt to get someone to sim it for you.

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    12. @Anon09:14

      I've never seen this particular design before on this or any other site and I've seen hundreds over the years. I also don't think anyone is being baited to sim it and I agree with Anon05:16 that it would be very difficult to sim using a 2d sim program no matter how many clever shortcuts and tricks the simmer used.

      In carefully studying the design I realized several things about it.

      First, the plane of the wheel carrying the four lead weights is not in the same plane as the large stationary outer ring gear. The wheel's plane is actually in front of the plane of the outer ring gear and would have to be held there by the two unshown axle support posts.

      Second, in only the orientation shown are the centers of two of the lead balls A & C actually in the plane of the wheel itself. In all other orientations of the wheel, ALL of the centers of the four lead balls are out of the plane of the wheel. I've seen various "Z axis" designs before, but this has got to be the ultimate one! (By "Z axis" I mean that there are weights moving parallel to the center line of the wheel's axle as the wheel turns).

      Third, as this wheel is rotated clockwise, all of the weights must actually be constantly LIFTED against the downward pull of gravity. This detail is not obvious from just looking at the static image of the design provided to us. That constant lifting motion will, through the bevel gears attached to those four large gears in contact with the large stationary outer ring gear, produce a COUNTERclockwise torque on the wheel which will oppose the clockwise torque acting on the wheel due to the four lead balls always having their center of gravity offset to the right side of the center of the axle.

      So, whether or not the Schnickelbacher pm wheel can work or not really boils down to a simple condition. If the two opposed torques are not equal, then the wheel must work in either of two directions if the gear meshing frictions are not too great. But, if the two torques are equal, then the wheel will always have zero net torque no matter what orientation it has and even though its four ball weights' center of gravity is always located to the right side of the center of the axle.

      I cannot accurately predict what condition exists in this design because I have not done any exact calculations of the torques present in it. However, it would not surprise me if, although unique, it is just another variation of those always out of balance designs that stubbornly remain stationary no matter what orientation they are manually rotated into.

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    13. Your suspicion was right, anon 20:35

      I calculated the torques in the wheel for several different positions and they always summed up to zero. This wheel might always be overbalanced, but it will just remain in whatever position it's turned to because there is no net torque to turn it. It's just another nonrunner.

      I don't know if Gottfried Schnickelbacher was a real person or not, but if he was then maybe he was better off dying in his sleep instead of recovering from his illness and then going to the trouble of building this thing only to find out it was also another waste of his time. That might have depressed him so much that he would have made his way to that windmill Bessler fell off of and then hurled himself off of the top of it!

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    14. I studied that Schnickelbacher wheel for over an hour trying to figure out some way to turn it into a runner. My conclusion is that it cannot be done so long as the four lead ball weights need to be lifted by gears in contact with anything that is fixed outside of the wheel like that big outside ring gear. This would also be the case if the weights were lifted by external ramps of some sort.

      The only hope I see to turn it into a runner is to find some way to have the ball weights lift themselves. But, that would require some of them to be falling while others rise and all four of the ball weights are always falling as his wheel is turned! Seems like an impossible problem to solve.

      But, somehow Bessler's design solved that problem. I remain convinced that his design was not a "Z axis" type design in any way. Everything must have been moving in the plane of the wheel. For some weights to fall as others rise seems to me to absolutely require that they be attached to the ends of levers. This also explains why the drums of his wheels were so thin compared to their diameters.

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    15. @anon 01:23,

      I agree with everything you said. That Schickelbacher wheel hasn't got a prayer of ever being a runner.

      The secret of B's wheels is to find an arrangement of weight holding levers that is OOB in any orientation of a wheel and stays that way as it turns. The motion of the levers must be continuous so that their COG stays in one spot on the wheel's descending side. IOW the weights are continuously resetting themselves and there is no sudden gross motion of one or more weights required to cause the reset.

      I think B gave a major clue in MT13 where he tells us that particular design would be very good for running IF someone was at the top of the wheel to lift the weights moving toward it. Now all we have to do is figure out how to use the continuous dropping of the other weights to do that. That means the levers need to be connected together in some way and most likely B used ropes for that. We know springs were also involved and they would have had to be attached to the levers in some way.

      Karl said the design was so simple that a carpenter's boy could build it after seeing it. So what arrangement of weights, levers, ropes, and springs would fit that description?

      Think guys...THINK!

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    16. Ok, anon 19:01, I did some thinking and came up with this spring wheel solution to Bessler's wheel:

      https://postimg.cc/94VcnYKV

      How it works is simple. On the lower left side the ascending levers lay closer to the inner wheel and compress the springs between the levers. On the upper left side the springs expand and raise to vertical the levers as they get closer to the top of the wheel. After 12 o'clock the springs are fully expanded and apply no force to the levers. Like mt 13 I used 12 levers, but it should also work with less than 12 like 10 or 8.

      I don't do sims, but I don't think this one would be that hard to sim. Good luck to anyone simming it.

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    17. Nice simple design, anon 23:06. I think a carpenter's apprentice wouldn't have a problem making it. It's just some weights, lever arms, and springs. No ropes though. Come to think of it, I don't recall Bessler ever hinting he used ropes inside of his wheels. That detail seems to be one everyone assumes to be true without any proof. Maybe you found his secret pm design!

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    18. "That detail seems to be one everyone assumes to be true without any proof."

      It's really amazing how many assumptions Besslerologists make about his wheels' internal mechanisms without any solid proof. They are all based on differing interpretations of ambiguous quotes from Bessler's writings or some particular angle or item in a drawing. This, of course, is exactly what Bessler wanted people to do which was to waste their time chasing worthless designs while he sat back knowing only he knew exactly how they worked. Then he hoped that when people's frustrations levels got great enough, they would finally pay him for the secret.

      I've often wondered what would have happened if he hadn't had that accident that killed him at age 65? Suppose he had lived until age 100? Would he ever have sold his invention at a far more affordable price so its secret could be revealed or would he still be keeping it concealed and waiting for his 100,000 reichthalers? I suspect he still would have been keeping it secret right until he drew his last breath!

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    19. @anon 23:06

      Thanks for your spring wheel design. It looked good enough to motivate me to make a quick sim of it. Unfortunately, despite making many changes to the masses of the weights and the values of the springs, I could not get the cog of the eight weights to stay anywhere else than right under the center of the wheel. So, it's another no torque nonrunner.

      https://i.postimg.cc/Px7mNpkM/Spring-Wheel.gif

      Maybe someone else could have better luck with it than I did.

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  8. Nice pictures but seriously flawed.

    Jc

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    1. Correct just like anon's image it is seriously flawed , the difference is lower quality and accuracy settings.

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    2. https://postimg.cc/6yMTvxrY

      This site also determined that it is A.I generated .

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    3. Maybe anon 22:06 made a fake AI "rare 18th century painting" in order to show us what one of Bessler's rivals might have looked like while he worked on a wheel? I'm less concerned about that than whether or not the rest of his story about an inventor named Gottfried Schnickelbacher is accurate. It certainly sounds plausible because Bessler did have many rival pm wheel builders and he was in constant fear that one of them would by chance duplicate Bessler's design and either openly reveal it or sell it off for a small fraction of what Bessler demanded for his wheel. If that happened, then Bessler's decade of work would have been for nothing!

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    4. All castles eventually falls in to the see , so believe what you want to believe , go ahead create false stories and images and smear Bessler's history for your own means , lie and fake away , i will have nothing to do with you lot anymore .

      "This is a rare 18th century painting that shows a Bessler rival inventor completing the construction of his latest pm wheel which he was 100% convinced would work and be even more powerful than any of Bessler's wheels!

      https://postimg.cc/WddpqRM3

      His name was Gottfried Schnickelbacher and he died at the age of 94 in 1753 in Leipzig. Unfortunately, none of his wheels ever worked. But the next morning on his death bed they found a notebook next to his cold corpse that contained a detailed drawing of his newest design which he was planning on building right after he recovered from a severe chest cold that he had been suffering from. Sadly, we will never know if it would have worked."

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    5. “ search - Schnickelbacher - did not match any documents.”. That was in the whole of google!

      JC

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    6. @JC
      Your failed search does not prove that Gottfried Schnickelbacher was not an actual person. There are many actual persons named in Bessler's writings that you won't find with a Google search. In fact, if it hadn't been for Bessler mentioning them, we'd never have known they ever lived.

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    7. Not true, all the names Bessler mentions are available from internet search.

      JC

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    8. I once tried to google Christian Wagner and couldn't find anything about him.

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    9. JC apparently the important painted individuall , so well known for his amazing PM build to try and rival Bessler , and who's history and story is only known to a very few elite individuals , along with the Schnickelbacher's lineage , the whole family tree missed out on genealogy !

      Schnickelbacher , sounds exactly like a name someone non-german would come up with !

      They are now going to say to you , Schnickelbacher was not his surname , because they just realized their made up name does not exist in the whole history of known names , which happens when you phonetically make up names and words to sound like a language you don't speak.

      hahahaha

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    10. Actually, anon 8:10, "Schnickelbacher" is a very German sounding name. There's even a brand of Bavarian style beer called "Schnickelfritz" that is available:

      https://www.urbanchestnut.com/our-beers/schnickelfritz

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    11. Precisely they thought it sounds german , it is a phonetically created name.

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    12. I do speak German and that name could be an actual German surname. "Schnickel" is most closely approximated by the English words "mischievous" or "naughty" and "bacher" is the German word for "baker". So this surname translates as "mischievous baker" or "naughty baker". Maybe some ancestor of Gottfried got a reputation for fooling his customers in some way or behaving in an immoral way?

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    13. Further to above comments I would recommend two volumes by Henry Dircks who studied the history of the search for Perpetual Motion, between the 13th century and the 19the century. I’m convinced he found everything relating to the search and published it. Vol one 558 pages, published in 1861, and vol two 368 pages, published in 1870. I have copies of both volumes and there is no mention of the name Schnickel nor anything similar.

      JC

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    14. This whole thing was probably a hoax to see how many would fall for the story of a forgotten pm wheel inventor and his death bed pm wheel. At a minimum it makes for some interesting reading and, when his wheel was finally exposed as a nonrunner, everyone here who thought it could work learned something about mechanics they previously did not know which is that just because a design looks good on paper and is always overbalanced does not mean it has to be a runner.

      On a more positive note, one can also consider this hoax as an odd homage to the countless pm chasers over the centuries who spent all of their lives looking for what Bessler found and finally went to their graves without ever having any success. We rarely hear about them because the world tends to focus on the few lucky successful while forgetting all about the equal efforts and dedication of the far more numerous unlucky failures. I think of the imaginary Gottfried Schnickelbacher as symbolizing all of those failures.

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    15. You even forgot the COG symbol you added in there ! gotcha ! LIER LIER !

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    16. Look everyone this is where our dear lier got his "german" from :

      snicklefritz (plural snicklefritzes) (US, dialectal, especially Pennsylvania) A child, especially a mischievous one; especially as a nickname or term of endearment, or exasperation. Alternative letter-case form of Snicklefritz.

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    17. It certainly sounds very similar to the Schnickelbacher pm wheel, but the link to the image of it in that past blog only returns an Error 404 message so we cannot see if it's exactly the same. Most likely it was, though, which would confirm what many already believe which is that the Schnickelbacher story in this blog is just a hoax. What's important is that the wheel was quickly determined to be a nonrunner so no one wasted any time trying to sim or build it. That's too bad because it is an interesting mechanical design.

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    18. It is the exact same ! I was part of evaluating it .

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    19. "Anonymous24 March 2024 at 18:31
      It certainly sounds very similar to the Schnickelbacher pm wheel, but the link to the image of it in that past blog only returns an Error 404 message so we cannot see if it's exactly the same. Most likely it was, though, which would confirm what many already believe which is that the Schnickelbacher story in this blog is just a hoax."

      He first claimed it is his friend's design , which he told cannot work but felt compelled to show it here , which he uploaded to be automatically deleted by postimage.org , that is why there is no image to the link anymore .

      Now he and his friend claimed a different story , which they went back and forth about being a death bed design of a new invented caracter (no longer his friend) , which was given to him on a cd and he had to go and find the treasure among some dusty hiding spot , where he blew off the dust like a movie scene , opened up and had to go and look for his dusty old cd rom to read it , and magically happen to have found it too!

      Except this time around he added the new death bed caracter's name on the image in the top right , going on acting like we would believe it all , this time around he got caught in his lies and his sand castle eventually fell in to the see , and now its damage control haha.

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    20. It's also possible that "jason" last year was himself hoaxed and his hoaxer, not getting much of a response here last year, decided to return and give it another try himself on this blog only this time anonymously.

      I suspect that there were actually two hoaxers here working independently of each other. The first one gave us the obviously fake AI generated "rare 18th century painting" along with a fictitious inventor named "Schnickelbacher" who had a final pm wheel design that he died before building and the second hoaxer, which was the one who would have hoaxed jason last year, saw a golden opportunity to add to the first hoaxer's story by claiming to have an image of Schnickelbacher's last pm wheel design on a CD that a "retired mechanical engineer and draftsman" had sent him years ago.

      A good hoax (or conspiracy theory) is one that sounds possible, but which cannot be easily debunked. If anybody had a working free energy device that was actually continuously outputting tens of kilowatts of power, then he would not be on blog like this revealing it. He would be at his patent attorney's office preparing an air tight international patent for it!

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    21. All hoaxes are lies , intentional but some are not meant to be malicious , i appear to be the only one laughing though ? after i pointed out that it was false they responded against me like i am lying , but here we are now and i am still the only one laughing at them lol .

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  9. “Oh ye seekers after perpetual motion, how many vain chimeras have you pursued? Go and take your place with the alchemists.

    — Leonardo da Vinci, 1494

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    1. I've pursued about two dozen vain pm chimeras so far and never caught one so I could make a buck off of it. I will, however, follow your sage advice and try alchemy for a change. Maybe I'll have more success turning lead into gold? Thanks for the tip!

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The Legend of Bessler’s (Orffyreus’s) Wheel - The Facts

  The Legend of Bessler’s Wheel or the Orffyreus Wheel and the verifiable facts. Some fifty years ago, after I had established (to my satisf...