Tuesday, 17 January 2017

Johann Bessler - A Man Before His Time.

Johann Bessler's timing was unforunate; Thomas Newcomen installed the first working steam engine at a coalmine in Staffordshire, England, in 1712, the exact same year that Bessler produced his first working gravity-enabled wheel.  When Newcomen died seventeen years later, over 100 Newcomen engines had been built throughout England and Europe.  Bessler had sold none.

Newcomen's engines were proven; loud, dirty, inefficient but reliable, and using coal in a coalmine made fuelling them easy, even if consumption was high.  Bessler's wheel was an unknowm quantity; even though Newcomen kept the details of his machines secret everyone could see what they were capable of.  Bessler also kept the details of his machines secret, but their power appeared to be extremely limited, in comparison.

In addition he promoted a principle which even then, was loudly rejected by the scientific community whereas steam power had already undergone a series of proven inventions by Denis Papin, who published a study on steam power, including a number of new ideas.  So Bessler's invention was ignored for the same reason it has been ignored ever since; it's premise that it acquired its energy from gravity was proscribed.

But ..... if Bessler had been born today and posted a youtube video of his machine working, with all the parts visible in detail - surely he would have been in the same position as we find ourselves in today, if we were able to replicate his wheel?  It seems curious that he made the discovery back in 1712 when Thomas Newcomen was about to ignite the Victorian industrial age.  Bessler's wheel was far more suited to today's world, than the early 18th century, in my opinion.

It's almost as if he was out of time with his invention;  300 years premature!  Even if the scientific community of Bessler's time had accepted his claims to have used gravity to drive his wheel, the competition from Newcomen would have killed his invention stone dead.  

Despite various claims that Bessler's wheel is too limited in its ability generate usable energy, I do not accept this view.  To me it seems obvious that his wheel can be scaled up to provide sufficient energy for many modern uses.  We have discussed this before on this blog, so I'm not necessarily inviting discussion on this point, but I wanted to reiterate the importance of not dismissing Bessler's wheel as a useful and practical invention at the start of the 21st century - and that it's time is now.

JC

104 comments:

  1. If Bessler had been born a century earlier, then his invention might have been better received and, after his "super wheels" started to be mass produced (each one outputting 6.67 kilowatts of power or more!), there would have been no need for steam engines other than as smaller sources of power for vehicles like trains and early automobiles like the "Stanley Steamer".

    I certainly see great scientific relevance for Bessler's wheels today. They graphically demonstrate that it is possible to construct machinery that powers itself and anything attached to it by using the mass energy of its own active parts and to do so without producing radioactive waste isotopes in the process as happens in nuclear power plants. We need to study how Bessler's wheels worked and to see if we can develop a technology based on them that can extract the latent mass energy of a machine's parts at far greater rates. If so, we might be able to build a car that could run off something the size of an auto battery until it fell apart without needing to refuel. A home might be completely electrically powered by a small box the size of a refrigerator. The mind boggles at what might be possible! I'm hoping to be around long enough to see this "Golden Age of OU" finally arrive.

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  2. He never made any claims about what drove his wheels, unless you count the 'weights swinging' statement. He wanted everyone to think he was claiming they were gravity wheels to confuse them. We know now even better that they couldn't have been gravity wheels; we're not confused. Gravity will remain a conservative force according to the 'proscriptive law' until someone manages to prove it isn't; which is not going to happen. We can't say Bessler proved it because he never said so and there isn't any surviving evidence.

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  3. I am sorry that is wrong!...Once you know the secret principle you will have to admit they are driven by gravity in their attempt to find equilibrium.

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  4. Bessler said his wheels was driven by the heaviness of internal weights, that remained "out of balance", and he said his wheel kept turning because of it's own momentum or "living force" inside the drum. He never mentions swinging. If we consider his wheel as Perpetual Motion wheels, as Bessler claimed, all candidates for the "primus motor" are considered conservative forces. (gravity, centripetal forces, momentum, magnetism etc.) So if the wheel don't use a conservative force (for example gravity) it is no Perpetual Motion machine pr. definition. All other forces we know are caused by draining some energy potential, thus no Perpetual Motion pr. definition. So if Besslers wheel worked as he claimed, some law involving conservative forces is incomplete, but not wrong. Before we even have to worry about what law may be incomplete, we should understand gravity. No actual proven explanation of gravity exist today, only formulas describing the observed effect. Without knowing what it is, we can never know if a potential is drained, thus we have NO idea if gravity actually is conservative or not on a universal basis. Good luck in perusing the "impossible" guys... It will happen again...

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    1. We do understand gravity as far as using it for energy. It is a conservative force field; I prefer that term to conservative force. 'Conserves' as meaning, doesn't directly change the amount of energy in a complete interaction we are observing from any arbitrary position. It doesn't increase it or decrease it. What does change is the ratio of potential and kinetic energy of the bodies or objects under observation. And at the end of the interaction, some energy will always have been irreplaceably converted to heat and radiated to the surroundings, by one of the bodies, some of the bodies, or all of them. Entropy wins.

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    2. "We do understand gravity as far as using it for energy. It is a conservative force field; . . ." - dougsubous

      Yes, we do and it is however, as given that bad news, how then would we best proceed in order to achieve that desired effect - of the production of surprising extra energy - so as to displace weights internally, this so as to cause continuous rotatory motion due to an imbalance thus produced, for outside usage?

      How?

      Aside from being dismissive generally, if you might have a notion then say.

      Then, afterward, I'll say.

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    3. Well, it would be best to proceed with the notion that gravity doesn't affect a gravity wheel. His wheels were getting the desired effect from a source of fuel that either remains hidden, or has been found but dismissed for being evidence of fraud.

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    4. @ dougsubous

      Since one of Bessler's wheels could be made to run in a centrifuge, that would seem to prove that the energy they outputted did not come from the Earth's gravity field. But, from the tone of your last reply, you seem to be suggesting that Bessler's wheels were hoaxes. Am I mistaken about that?

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    5. I think we'll have to see one running at all before you can claim they can be made to run in a centrifuge, don't you? Your explanation for their energy output is an "alternative fact".

      If the source of their fuel was environmental, then by modern definition they were hoaxes. By 17th century definition, they were not hoaxes. Drebbel's 1610 clock and Cox's 1760 clock were fueled by the environment and claimed as perpetual motion. I'm not sure if Beverly claimed his 1865 clock was pm; it's still running after its initial start.

      If that is the case, then the solution is how to engineer it and square it with Bessler's statements regarding the impetus, etc. of his wheels.

      The only other option is the wheels were hoaxes even by 17th century definition.

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    6. dougsubous, thanks for your rely.

      I believe that the needed trick is to 'think unnaturally' and by this means as set apart from the usual, to design for conformity to the requirement, of which we know a fair amount.

      Such thinking would mandate the conceiving of a mechanical device that would react asymmetrically to the uniform conservative force that is the attracting ocean of gravitas. (Or, is it repellent from without?)

      If found a success, then this would supply the extra whatever it is actually. (There now seem to be evidence and talk to the effect that energy really might not exist after all? Yikes! Are we now at the precipice of entering La-La-Land for real? But, it is supposed by the poo-bahs of great and towering authority to not exist!! No?)

      Such an inanimate THING as realized finally, observed behaving as it did most peculiraly, would not be found within Nature surely, not outside of living creatures that is, which seem of the ectropic, functionally.

      It, this THING, to be a success would have to be designed particularly so as to react in an apparently SUPERNATURAL way, and succeed.

      This is why, I believe, that Bessler referred to his as living? (Echos of "vis-viva"?) And, of course, to him only God could ordain that life is to be (Or, sort of did? Others might tidy-up this notion if seemingly in-error?)

      This would be IT, then, the trick itself, which might be novel as thought to you.

      Bessler found, I am quite sure, that unnatural mechanism custom-designed so as to produce the unnatural effect - the seeming production of energy right out from Nowhere Land. This will be found actual the case - as "Criswell Predicts" - something from nothing, the ultimate and permanent 'free lunch'.

      Once, some time ago, a certain BWF member known to most as difficult personally, to put it quite leastwise, I saw as he had written it, a demand to some chap that the "legitimate" source of energy would first have to be cited before any proceeding further could be.

      Elsewhere sometime later, I countered that this might be found to be not necessary, as it might be discovered "illegitimate" energy a priori, which of course is a dreamed-of marvel calculated to drive many older mainline physicist sorts straight into Bedlam, where they could then be made harmless. (What a scrumptious thought!!!)

      So, in-sum, excepting for the fact that Bessler seemed to use usual organic/inorganic materials and techniques to construct his machines, what was NOT NATURAL was the conception which originated, I do believe, from Higher Thought and Ability, than that supplied by the mere earthly Natural.

      That would be it.

      CHEERS!

      James

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    7. Gravity keeps all planets, stars and galaxies in orbit..Space crafts use gravity as a sling shot during long travel... Gravity creates tides... Gravity has constant pull on everything... Gravity makes rivers flow... Gravity has control over everything by holding them close to the surface.. Gravity makes things fall..The list goes on...It would be ridiculous to think that gravity can't turn a wheel continuously...Some ingenuity is reqd to make this happen.... That's what Bessler did and he cautiously guarded the security...

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    8. Gravity is constant...Does it mean it is constantly being replenished?...and, if that is so, can it be called a conservative force?.. Gravity is not fully understood...

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  5. I seem to remember his comment; the greater the swing,the greater the power.

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    1. Here we are, a bunch of outsiders, trying to prove that Bessler's wheel was genuine, and hoping to replicate it. So why do we persist in manoeuvring ourselves around the facts which are frankly, in my opinion, indisputable? Bessler's wheel was driven by falling weights, courtesy of the force of gravity. He didn't use the word 'gravity', because he was German and wrote and thought in German. The word 'gravity' was used by Newton because he wrote Principia in Latin and 'gravity' means 'weight' in English. So Bessler's wheel used weights to drive it around.

      Gravity is a conservative force and so is the wind and the tide. We don't seem to worry about that fact. One way to tell if a force is conservative is if you can conserve the force expended, such as in its potential energy. Potential energy is the energy a system has due to position, shape, or configuration. It is stored energy that is completely recoverable.

      If I move a toy sailing ship upwind I can let it sail with the wind again, as many times as I wish to move it upwind again, or lift an object off the floor to a higher shelf, or float a ball on a stream of water and occasionally lift it out and drop it back in upstream.

      These are conservative forces and eminently usable for generating energy.

      JC

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    2. Wind can act as a conservative force, or simulate a conservative force, but it isn't one! Why not? Because We know one or more situations where it simply isn't.

      I guess the definition of conservative forces is that there exist NO KNOWN ways to make an object return to the same position within the field with any energy extracted in that particular field.

      So wind can imitate a conservative force fairly well, but never actually be one.

      IMO

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    3. The facts are disputable, John. Falling weights only get a wheel started. What does Newton's use of the word gravity in Latin have to do with anything? Bessler knew about the word gravity, and it's meaning, he used it in his "as long as they remain out of the center of gravity" note. If Bessler had said, "gravity is what drives the wheels" plain and simple, then you'd have a case.

      Wind and tide aren't conservative force fields. False analogies are not helpful. Wind and water movement are indirect sources of solar power.

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    4. Usually when I discuss wind and streams of water as consevative forces, I emphasise that the conditions are local. It matters not how the force was generated just how it manifests itself and are used in a particular instance. In other words they may on occasion act like a conservative force, allowing the use of potential energy.

      I mention the fact of the word'gravity' being latin, because as many have pointed out Bessler does not use the word 'gravity' anywhere in his publications other than a brief mention in DT, where he ues the word 'gravium' which translates into the word 'troopers'! 'Gravium' is the plural of 'gravis' which means 'serious, grave, burdensome, heavy, pregnant'. This suggests that he did not intend us to translate the word 'gravium' into 'gravity', but rather he was referring to the centre of all the weights on the wheel, including the wheel itself. The actual translation reads 'these weights are themselves the PM device, the ‘essential constituent parts’ which must of necessity continue to exercise their motive force (derived from the PM principle) indefinitely – so long as they keep away from the centre of gravity.' This was a reasonable translation but does not necessarily mean 'gravity' as we know it but rather he was refering to the centre of heaviness, which although it seems the same does not carry the full intention in Newton's words.

      JC

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  6. I have never read that statement anywhere, from Bessler. And when Bessler used the word schwung (schwunges) it seems he means what we today call momentum, kinetic energy or even impetus. Besslers peer, Leibniz called it "living energy". No swinging. And I believe that would be written as "Schwingen". We use a version of the same word in Norway. "Schwung" means "a good punch" or "a lot of energy", but has nothing to do with swinging back and forth. IMO

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  7. Much discussion about the "conservative" nature of our planet's gravity field here as far as masses moving around a closed path are concerned. Yes, it gravity fields are conservative, but there are ways around this situation.

    For example, in a recirculation mill, many of which were actually constructed in the 18th century, the water falling down from the raised supply tank falls through a certain vertical distance (even though it temporarily occupies one side of a water wheel which then drives a pump) while the water at the bottom in the collection tank is pumped back up to the raised supply tank again through the exact same vertical distance by some mechanism. And, the device will run. Of course, it won't run very long because, eventually, the starting amount of water in the raised supply tank will be gone since that tank was not refilled fast enough to compensate for the greater amount of water leaving it per minute than was simultaneously being pumped back into it again per minute.

    In Bessler's wheels a somewhat analogous situation existed. The weighted levers rose and fell through the same distance, but, due to the unique mechanics involved, the falling weights fell at a slightly greater vertical speed than the rising ones rose. So, in essence, the amount of mass falling per minute on the his wheel's descending side was a bit more than the amount rising per minute on the ascending side. A falling weight loses GPE while a rising one must be supplied with GPE. Thus, in Bessler's wheels, as the weighted levers continuously orbited the axle, they continuously lost a little more GPU on the descending side which was transferred to the drum and axle than they took back from the drum and axle on the ascending side. It was that excess lost GPU per weighted lever per drum rotation that was used to accelerate his wheels or operate any outside machinery attache to their axles.

    But, where did that energy come from in the first place since gravity has no energy of its own to supply? Again, the only possible source left to consider (if we are not claiming he hoaxed his wheels!) is the mass of the weighted levers themselves. They contained enough energy to power one of his wheels at its low power output for a long time. And, by "long" I mean like billions of years! But, they would, like any recirculation mill, eventually stop when their weighted levers became massless.

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  8. In physics a "conservative force" is a static force; one that does not change in time.

    Conversely, a non-conservative force is one that is time-variant.

    These are standard definitions.

    Although i also share Doug's view that it's not the most instructive terminology, since the "conserved" quantity in question is energy, and energy is force times displacement - ie. it is INTERACTIONS that are conservative or not, not the force, any more than the distance.

    An "interaction" is a closed-loop trajectory; obviously, through a static field, the force only changes with distance therefore the interaction is conservative. But travelling through a time-varying field the interaction may or may not be conservative, depending on whether or not the input to output force / distance integrals are equal or not.

    The energy source in Bessler's wheel is whatever's responsible for raising the weight in the first place - for instance water wheels are not driven by gravity, but by the heat that evaporates the water before it re-condenses over higher ground.

    The only condition upon which we could say that gravity was the ultimate energy source would be a situation in which the raised mass was fully balanced against gravity - NOT counter-balanced against some other force, which would then be the responsible party.

    If we can lift a weight while it remains balanced against gravity, then no input work has been done against gravity, while we still nonetheless procure output work by its unbalanced falling. This is an example of output work from a field, without a corresponding tally of input work. In this, and only this circumstance, we have 'free' energy from gravity, the time-variant factor being the ability to effectively switch weight on and off.

    If however some other field is responsible for actually lifting mass against gravity, then input work has been performed upon the gravity field, and it is the same amount of work as we then gain in output. In this scenario, gravity is but the medium, a form of mechanical actuator or storage / conversion of PE to KE, but it is no more "free energy from gravity" than it would be from springs or batteries, since the field has recieved a full and equitable yield of input energy, for our given output energy... the GAIN was not due to gravity, but whatever raised the weight against it.

    I remain curious, John, whether you think gravity in this matter could be replaced by any other force, at least in principle. Would your design, if sound, also work atop an accelerating rocket, or under CF in a horizontally-rotating system? Likewise, if the masses were 'weighted' magnetically, rather than gravitationally..? Because obviously, this would then render specualtions about the particulars of gravity somewhat moot..

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    1. I agree with everything you say Vibe, although I tried to make the point in an earlier response, that I regard the wind for instance as acting like a conservative force under certain conditions, local to the action. Hence the ability to store and restore Potential Energy time after time.

      However your point that gravity is a static force is a valid point especially when compared to the wind which obviously is not static. Nevertheless I remain confident that I have found a way around the seemingly impossible task of arranging for the weights to be lifted at the apropriate point.

      It becomes obvious, at least to me, that the weights need to be lifted before rotation can begin, therefore the wheel MUST be able to begin to spin spontaneously once the brake is released. If the particular weight has already been lifted then the wheel muct already be in a position of imbalance and therefore ready to spin as soon as it is able to.

      JC

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  9. There has been a video of a working gravity wheel on youtube for years, which I know is genuine - the g force rotational machine.
    An authentic bessler wheel on youtube will end up the same way, ignored by bessler wheel enthusiasts because there will be many experts on forums all over the internet convincing them that it is fake .

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    1. it looks good but what noise for ears!

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZItT-XqqrHE


      boris

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    2. How do you know it's genuine? Is that potato cam the only vid? Any further details?

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    3. "An authentic bessler wheel on youtube will end up the same way, ignored by bessler wheel enthusiasts because there will be many experts on forums all over the internet convincing them that it is fake."

      That is definitely a possibility. Just consider how many people were denouncing Bessler's wheels as hoaxes and he actually had the real thing! I'm hoping that by publishing the design I have in a book format, it will stand out from the "OU Noise" on Youtube and other sites and it will be seriously considered. Hopefully, others will sim the design and, seeing that the sims are "runners", decide to take a crack at actually building a physical replica. But, even then, there are no guarantees. My best effort might just result in a volume that also gets ignored. We live in a world where, quite unfortunately, unless an invention is produced by a Fortune 500 corporation that invested billions in it and launched a multi-million dollar tv ad campaign to promote it, it is not considered real and can get quickly ignored. The average inventor, even if he is lucky enough to produce a working invention, is fighting an up hill battle all the way to either manufacture and sell it or sell it outright to some company. And, it's a battle which he will have only a small chance of winning. I think if Bessler was alive today, he'd probably be having he exact same problems he had with his wheels 300 years ago!

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    4. Ken if you mention your #@~*4ing book one more time I'm going to proscribe it!!!!

      JC

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    5. Sorry, John, just trying to explain some of my motivations, but shouldn't you wait until you actually read it before you "proscribe" it? (I had to look that word up to find out what it meant!).

      Actually, however, that Anonymous above brings up a good point which is exactly what will be needed to convince the world that Bessler's wheels have been rediscovered since even a working wheel nowadays may be ignored or endlessly dismissed as a hoax. I'm hoping the DT portrait clues I've found will be accepted and "prove" what I've found is "it", but there's no guarantee of that. You have presented many clues over the years that you've found, but how many have accepted them as having any real validity? Come to think of it, maybe, ultimately, the only people we really need to convince are...ourselves! If that is the case, then I'm already there!

      Anyway, amazing how quickly the mood can change around here following the New Year's Day euphoria. I suspect things will look better in the spring...

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    6. Yes I think you're right Ken, things look brighter and the outlook seems more positive once the old year has been put to bed.

      I was joking when I said I would proscribe your book Ken (I wouldn't even if could and I can't!) I admit I would like to read it but I might perhaps skim through some of it, preferring to get to the nitty-gritty as soon as may be practicable.

      JC

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    7. John, I think you will find the book of great interest and I will, of course, see that you get a gratis copy from the publisher. And, because of your critical role in keeping the Bessler story alive post Gould, you get much well deserved credit in the text (along with my urging readers to obtain all of your translations of the original Bessler works!). The "nitty gritty" of it, however, is spread out over about 4 or 5 chapters and there are, literally, dozens of professional quality illustrations to delight and intrigue the technically minded reader. They will take him deep inside the drums of the wheels for an up close look at the mechanics they contained. I think if we could somehow send a copy of the manuscript translated into 18th century German back to Bessler, he would approve of it although, of course, he definitely would not want it being published until after his wheel sold. Come to think of it, if it had sold, then the new owner would probably not have wanted the text published either!

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    8. OP here, After six o'clock the weights pull out from the center slightly and at nine o'clock they pull back in.
      It is overbalanced because when a weight pulls out after six o'clock it is not bearing on the wheel, and then it pulls back in at nine o'clock. so between six and nine there is less weight on the wheel because as the weight is pulling out it is not pushing downward on the wheel, which means that the descending side is always heavier than the ascending side, that is how it works.

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    9. It is MT10 done correctly, there are different gravity wheels in the MT drawings, for those who can comprehend.

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    10. Sadly, none of the MT designs are workable as shown, but I agree that MT 10 is important, especially the notes to it which read:

      "The principle is good, but the figure is not yet complete until I delineate it much differently at the appropriate place and indicate the correct handle-construction."

      I think the last part should be more properly translated / interpreted as "...and indicate the correct lever shape and how the levers are arranged."

      Bessler hints in the notes that the correct version of MT 10 is the design he used (I agree!) and that he will show it at the end of MT. Those illustrations would have been MT 138 to 143. But, after his arrest, he removed those drawings and destroyed the etched plates for them. Instead he substituted the "Toys Page" with its four "children's games" which each illustrate, metaphorically, some aspect of the actual imbalanced pm mechanics in his wheels. Yes, the Toy's Page is certainly interesting and has been the subject of much debate and opinion. But, it would have been nice if we could have seen those missing four illustrations. Now, we can only guess what they showed. I suspect that two of them would have showed a one-directional wheel's internal axial and profile views and the other two the same views for one of his bidirectional wheels. Perhaps one of them would have shown a close up of the weighted levers he used and the various attachment points on it for the coordinating cords. Well, I hope to soon be providing the same information that was in those missing figures from MT!

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    11. I have tried to get it to work and guess what ! it will not work :(

      https://vid.me/aLTK

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  10. heres a guy that figure how to make gnerator power itself and tools! i thought this not posible?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fv53K9MnDuM


    boris

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  11. Someday, the whole earth will be filled with perfect humans. So why would you want to build a perpetual gravity wheel? Perfect humans will live forever. So, in a since, they will be perpetual.

    This fact is indisputable.

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  12. if you got junk parts and few minutes you can make this free engery wheel!

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hCQEC1qxRn8


    boris

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  13. I think someday we will figure out what Bessler did. However I do not want to discorage you, I really wonder how much power Bessler wheel produced. A working wheel would be a tremendous scientific achievement; but such a device using just gravity sounds quite impractical to me. Gravity is the weakest force you know. I really have doubts about its power output. As John, you pointed out, most probably most people thought in this fashion, and,practicaly, they didn't see a great value in it.

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    1. My best estimate was that the Kassel wheel was outputting about 50 watts at startup and that output diminished as the enlarged drum accelerated and the centrifugal forces acting on its weighted levers began to increasingly interfere with their smooth and continuous shifting motions necessary to maintain the imbalance of their center of gravity on the axle's descending side. That's not much power for a wheel weighing close to 800 lbs, but he could have nearly halved that weight if he had simply made it a one-directional wheel. Also, he could have doubled the startup power output to 100 watts if he had reversed the symmetry of one of the Kassel wheel's two internal one-directional wheels so that they were both active at the same time. Bessler's vision for more powerful wheels went far beyond 12 foot diameter wheels, though. He had plans for "super wheels" that would have been able to output around 7,000 kilowatts each at startup. Unfortunately, they would have been very massive and expensive to construct and maintain. If they had been constructed and put into use, our world today, particularly our sciences and technologies, might look much different then they do.

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    2. Correction. Above I wrote that one of Bessler's super wheels could have output about 7,000 kilowatts. That should have been 7 kilowatts or 7,000 watts.

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  14. Question for both John and Ken: what are your ETAs for book release?

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    1. My book is, technically, "done". However, at this point the manuscript files need to be carefully proofread and various errors in figures and text corrected. Right now I'm only about half way through the first of the eleven chapters even though I work on it for about two hours every day. And, of course, every once in a while, I think of something to add to the text which slows down progress even more. Just last night, I discovered the reason why Bessler decided to remove the felt cushions he had used in the Draschwitz wheel for sound dampening from the Merseburg wheel. The reason is actually quite obvious once one knows the details of the Merseburg wheel's internal construction. My chapter 1, which gives an abbreviated sketch of Bessler's life story, could, literally, be an entire book by itself! Anyway, I still have a mountain of work ahead of me, but I'm optimistic at being able to deliver the manuscript on CD to the publisher by early April. It would certainly be nice if I had some super duper software available that could analyze the text I have now and straighten it all out in a matter of seconds. Well, something like that might be possible some day, but not today, unfortunately.

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    2. Regarding the cost and difficulty of building Bessler's speculative large wheel, a replacement Newcomen engine was ordered in 1811 at a cost of £352.42.

      An invoice about one hundred years earlier for John Rowley, master of mechanicks, reads "for making a dam before and behind the engine, for clearing the old foundation, for setting down a new frame, 26 foot long and 11 foot high, broad enough for the twelve foot wheel;
      for the new wheel of twenty-four foot diameter and twelve foot broad; for the new brass engine with brasses to the crank, forcing rods and a new crank etc. . . £740.

      This invoice refers to a tidal wheel designed to pump water from the river Thames to Windsor castle. Taking account of the size of the wheel and ignoring the refurbishment of the foundations, the costs are probably comparative, but note the huge size of the tidal wheel, not really a problem for engineers of those days.

      JC

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    3. Maybe the total cost for the construction of one of Bessler's 40 foot super wheels and the digging of a 25 foot deep, stone lined trench to hide half of it so that its axle would be at ground level would have been about £2,000. However, my calculations indicate that to operate Count Karl's cascade with a somewhat impressive flow rate of 1,000 gallons per minute would have taken a dozen of these super wheels working together. The cost for twelve of them would then be about £24,000. But, that's not the end of the cost. One still needs four pumps each capable propelling the flow of rising water through a horizontal distance of 75 feet (each pump would be driven by four super wheels with connected axles). At a cost of £200 per pump, that's another £1,000. So far the tab is up to £25,000. Yet, there is still the necessity of purchasing and installing about 1,000 feet of piping to carry the water to the top of the cascade from the lake at the bottom. Assuming the installation of an above ground piping system to minimize the digging and future repair costs, add another £5,000. Thus, the total cost for Karl to realize his dream of an ever flowing cascade would have been about £30,000. That's a rather big expense for him to have handled personally and I'm sure if the taxpayers in his principality had found out he had spent that much of their taxes on the project when there were so many other civil engineering projects that were needed and which would have better benefited their local economy, then they would have had fit. But, if it had ever actually been done, then it probably would have been considered the 8th wonder of the world! Perhaps cities all over the planet would have wanted one and if the only place the super wheels were being manufactured was Hesse-Kassel, then that business would have brought a never ending cascade of money flowing into that region.

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    4. Correction: The four pumps would have had to raise the water through a vertical height of 360 feet, not 300. My bad. This does not change the cost estimates, however.

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    5. My intention was simply to try to arrive at a very rough cost to build the super wheel, with no idea in mind for its use. At the same time I was trying to show that such a large wheel was well within the engineering capabities of the time.

      JC

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    6. I quite agree about the super wheels Bessler envisioned being feasible from an engineering point of view in the early 18th century. Let's hope that when the first duplicates of his smaller wheels are soon constructed, someone will decide to attempt the construction of a super wheel. With a bit of re-engineering, it should be possible to half their diameters to only 20 feet without a loss of maximum startup power which begins to make them a possibility for providing residential electrical power on a 24/7 on demand as needed basis. Might not be practical for several houses crammed onto a single city block, but certainly private homes on larger properties might want to install them. With modern materials, a wheel like this could be made almost maintenance free. I'm optimistic about the future potential of these.

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    7. Is our saintly-patient Editor, John, to get A CUT from helping to advertise (push) your "Book"???

      (After all the nonsense spewage of utter pseudo-use babble that you have posted here, John is now approaching 'godly', in said famous patience! It is so. Only death and the worms are ever to bring blessed relief from you and it.)

      Is your "Book" to be a work of art as well as a mere historical/technical re-hash supplying NO requisite 'smash finish', or, a mere creation of a sad mechanist's effort born of sterility of heart AND pelvis, and insatiable thirst for approbation and applause, none of which is EVER to be enough??? (Can't be both.)

      Of these matters, rationally-hectoring but still-curious minds DEMAND to know.

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    8. In a sense, John will be getting a very big "cut" from the book, although not immediately of the monetary kind. Aside from getting a gratis copy, I've mentioned him several times and acknowledged his critical historical importance to keeping the Bessler story alive post Gould. I also acknowledge that it was his posting of the two DT portraits that finally allowed me to locate and decrypt their many clues and, eventually, find a successful, clue justified design for the imbalanced pm mechanics Bessler used. So, his rightful place in the history of the subject should be further well secured for all time to come by its publication. Most importantly, he will also know the joy of achieving "Full Bessler Awareness" which he can enjoy for the rest of his, hopefully, very long and healthy life. This is a sublime state of mind that prevails when one finally understands exactly how Bessler's wheels really worked and the meaning of all accurately translated clues in his writings. For anyone who has pursued the solution for a lifetime, there can really be no better reward!

      My book, to be considered "complete" is, of course, obliged to have a summary of the Bessler story in it. That summary, unfortunately, got a bit out of hand as I continued to add more and more details to it and, now, has reached the point where the chapter that contains it could literally be an entire book by itself! But, I've decided to put it and the rest of the text into a single massive volume and am hoping (and praying) it will not exceed my publisher's maximum limit of 1,000 pages in length. Yes, I know it's a ponderous tome, but I want it to be as big and grand as the life and accomplishments of Bessler himself. A fitting tribute to an inventor without whose tireless efforts we would not all be here now. I also want it to serve to completely vindicate him and help him achieve his rightful place in the history of science although, sadly, it must be done posthumously. And, seeing it published on the 300th anniversary of the construction of his Kassel wheel, his largest and most powerful, seems all the more appropriate!

      I guess one could say the volume is a "work of art" considering it has about 40 illustrations in it. There are images of the personalities involved with Bessler and even Weissenstein Castle itself. Complete schematics are given for the Gera prototype that Bessler tinkered together after his dream so the serious craftsmen out there can immediately begin building that toy wheel and planning for its much larger versions some of which I also illustrate. All of the relevant hidden clues in the two DT portraits are located and interpreted and I show how they led to the design that is presented. All I can say is that if one has a serious interest in Bessler's wheels, then I think he will find this volume of great interest. I am very confident that it will forever after change his view of Bessler and his wheels. Indeed, it should dramatically change the very nature self-motive machinery research itself!

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    9. John, don't be disappointed by your monetary cut from Ken's book. 4 pounds!

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    10. @ dougsubous

      Interesting that you mention the figure of 4 pounds. That's the mass of one of the cylindrical lead weights in the Merseburg wheel and also about the mass of the book when it's finished! It might even be the price of an ebook download over in Britain! I didn't realize these "coincidences", but I consider them yet more fortuitous omens. In an effort to make sure the manuscript is delivered to the publisher by early April, I've almost doubled the amount of work per day that I'm putting into its proofreading. That should help speed things up.

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    11. Notice how KB must always interject THE LAST WORD?

      To any examining psychiatrist, this is significant, it being symptomatic because so consistent.

      Honestly, he must LIVE within these pages, having no meaningful life outside of them. This is sad.

      The Approbation Well is running dry just as it did over at BWF, and the less charitable/patient are beginning to notice the same tiresome old threadbare patterns of advantage-taking, of which he is past-master at doing.

      For how long must the abused continue to be suckers for his game?

      He FEEDS upon us all. (Well, not me.)

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  15. I believe that conception of gravity as a conservative force as described by all is an undisputable fact. I also believe that the potential energy released by the force of gravity can be stored and used as a form of "catalyst' to trigger the force of gravity to release potential energy anew which again is stored and used again in a perpetual circle of potential energy releaae and reuse.

    Specifically as in the case of Besslers' wheel, in constant motion driven by force of gravity acting on "internal weights that remained out of balance" I'm of the opinion that the potential energy thus released as a result was stored and used to keep the weights in a constant state of "out of balance" which in turn triggered the effect of the force of gravity on the weights, thus keeping the wheels in constant motion. Knowing How Bessler stored that potential energy and used it within his wheel system to perpetually keep the weights out of balance under the force of gravity maybe the key needed to replicate Besslers' wheel

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    1. Welcome BI. Yes, one can not deny the reality of the conservative nature of gravity fields. Fortunately, one can accept that and still build a working imbalanced pm wheel as Bessler did. You are right about the need to use part of the gravitational potential energy released by the moving weights inside of Bessler's wheels to maintain their overall imbalance. The energy that is used for this must be temporarily stored and, in the design I derived from the clues hidden in the two DT portraits, that storage is done with stretched springs.

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    2. Thank You Ken, Yes!! stretched springs, my thoughts exactly.

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  16. Wrong...why store..Every swing is a shot in the arm..Springs are not even temporarily used for storage...Total misguide...very pathetic..If this is the trend take it from me this year is going to be another normal one...

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    1. Many, many designs have come along over the centuries that were "weights" only. They simply do not work. It takes a continuous supply of "prime mover" energy to keep raising the elevation of a wheel's center of gravity as the rotating wheel tries to lower it. There are only a few places in a rotating system of weights where one can find that energy. Some means of storing it efficiently and quickly releasing it where necessary must be found and used. Bessler found a design that used such a system. There is a reason that the witnesses of the Merseburg wheel's testing heard the sound of a spring vibrating loudly when the lever Bessler was wrestling with slipped out of his hand. The weighted levers in that wheel had springs attached to them and they served to temporarily store the energy of swinging weights that would ordinarily be turned into useless sound and vibration. When that energy was later released, it was enough to keep the wheel imbalanced despite the constant rotation of its drum.

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  17. Spring was used to boost the swing...Just for a nudge..But the distractors thought of it otherwise... Gravity is constant...One has to come up with a design that would make optimum use of it.... storage is not required when the fuel is directly available at all times.. Continuous overbalance can be achieved by proper lever-weight design and it's arrangement which has never been done after bessler hence the failure over the years.. Bessler's initial wheels were always imbalanced...This was not due to the involvement of spring...And the snapping noise heard during testing was from the sudden release of lever attached to spring...This is correct..But not to be construed the way you interpret...The role of the spring is limited...If you misunderstand or misinterpret this here please be prepared for another 300 years wait...Leave alone 2017...No offence...

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    2. In my thoughts and as rightly observed by you and I quote "Spring was used to boost the swing. Just for a nudge" my guess is, that "nudge" is the realese of potential energy "stored" (in quotes for want of a better word) in the spring(s) as a result of the natural effect of gravitational force on the weights.

      Now it may be that a system of lever-weight or pulley or cogwheel or whatever mechanical devices was used to transfer that potential energy to the spring to enable it provide the "nudge".

      However you can not take away the critical and key role of the Spring in Besslers System. Therefore its role is not limited.

      2017 is here and the solution can be found and may have already been found.

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    3. SK wrote: "Continuous overbalance can be achieved by proper lever-weight design and it's arrangement which has never been done after bessler hence the failure over the years.."

      I think the most important thing that has prevented a successful duplication of Bessler's wheels in the last 300 years is that inventors have not been using springs in their designs. Like you, they think that "weights alone" will work. If they had used more springs in their wheels, then Bessler's wheels might have been successfully duplicated 200 or more years ago. I do agree, however, that there could be another 300 year delay in duplicating his wheels, but only if designs not using springs are pursued!

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  18. Hi Suresh,
    Your absolutely right, you say be prepared for another 300 years, you might as well call it 3 million years,
    A machine will appear this year which will need a slight push to put it into motion, so Orffyreus clues will turn into debates. I personally don't honestly know whether Orffyreus was successful?
    If he was then he as mislead a lot of people, but then again people only see and read what they want to see. Whatever way you look at it Mr Bessler was a very clever man.

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  19. As I knew, it is again not being understood properly..The same dialogue appeared during bessler's time...But bessler tried his best to convince all distractors that spring usage was not the way they had meant...But, who listens...The only way to convince you all now is just wait and let 2017 also pass by as usual.. the actual initial bessler wheel, if ever it is built, will not need that slight push... Bessler wheel can still slowly turn without the spring...Such is the design...If you need faster revolution then spring is reqd..The potential energy in the weight can be released without any spring usage..The very position of the weight in the arrangement spells potential energy and it is released at the Banging point...Where it lands after the swing..One thinks of spring for releasing the energy because of the wrong design he has...The slogan that the solution being found has been heard every year...Let me tell you one secret...When one has the right design he will not bugle the above slogan instead he will make the solved statement...

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  20. SK wrote:

    "The very position of the weight in the arrangement spells potential energy and it is released at the Banging point...Where it lands after the swing."

    However, in the notes to MT 52 Bessler informs us that:

    "I will only say the following: no wheel is moved through strong blows, for paddles would sooner dash it into 1000 pieces, and it would be utterly destroyed with bullets, as is sufficiently known."

    I find myself in agreement with Bessler that it was not the impacts of the weights on their drum's descending sides that propelled his wheels. These impacts were not producing "banging" sounds, but, rather, "gentle" impacts. They were just lightly making contact on the drum's descending side. One must look elsewhere for the source of the torque that turned Bessler's wheels.

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  21. I quite agree with you that impacts didn't propel..The weight sitting on the warped edge on the inner circumference does propel..This is further augmented by other factors like inertia, centrifugal, etc.,this action repeated by the following weights is the prime mover...

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  22. Torque is created by weight that has just landed on the descending side..

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    1. In the design I obtained for Bessler's imbalanced pm mechanics, the torque is created by all 8 of the weighted levers inside of a one-directional wheel's drum. To maintain the wheel's imbalance and keep the center of gravity of all 8 weighted levers on the descending side of the axle requires the precisely coordinated motions, during any 45 degree segment of rotation, of 7 of the 8 weighted levers. The levers must be specially shaped and the coordinating cords attached to them at precise locations. Even so, in the Merseburg and Kassel wheels the center of gravity of these wheels' weighted levers was only projected horizontally onto the axle's descending side less than half an inch from a vertical line passing through the center of the axle.

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  23. All this is OK...But cords??..I don't think they fit in... Cords only complicate...Levers can be made to move in the segment designated..And they would perform without the need of the cords...Coordination of all Levers is possible without the use of cords..It is much to do with proper designing of the segments, too.. Finally, everything should look ridiculously simple..That is the real bessler wheel and till then it is going to evade us all...

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    1. This is one of the big surprises to emerge from my Bessler research. To make the moving weighted levers keep their center of gravity on the descending side of a one-directional wheel's axle during drum rotation requires that all of the 8 weighted levers be interconnected in a special way with several distinct sets of cords. The number of cords required is 40! It sounds like a lot, but it's only 5 cords per weighted lever and they are distributed into several layers so that no two of them will rub together during drum rotation. I learned the hard way how futile it can be to try to make work an imbalanced wheel with isolated "perpetual motion structures" that function independently of each other and are only activated by gravity. Bessler mentions that the weighted levers within his wheels were "coordinated". The only way that can be done with a "simple" mechanism is through the use of interconnecting cords between the weighted levers. Interestingly enough, 22 of the first 40 figures in MT use such coordinating cords! That's over 50%. However, none of them shows the system that he actually used and found success with. When that system is finally revealed, many will be amazed at its simplicity.

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    2. There are certain clues of bessler that have several meaning..To pick the right one is no easy task....The word Coordinated could also mean something different...It is here that one could easily go the wrong track..In sturdy machines cords couldn't possibly withstand the stress..So you see we can't be sure about cords...You seem to be relying too much on the center of gravity point, always...First, we need proper designing...CoG would naturally happen when you have the right design..Let us find out how many of us here in this blog feel cords are necessary...

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    3. Another surprise that I found was that the cords really weren't under too much stress on the drum's ascending side. That was because much of the weight of the weighted levers on the drum's ascending side was counter balanced by the tension from stretched springs. It is quite true that there can be much dispute about the "proper" way to translate sections of Bessler's writings. In fact, I eventually realized that, even if one had a perfect translation of his writings, it would still be useless as far as finding out how the mechanics of his wheels worked! There is only one place in all of his writings where I found a precise description of the mechanics used in his wheels. And, that description is not a written one, but, rather, a mathematical one! Bessler chose to use the universal language of mathematics to preserve the secret of his wheels, rather than either German or Latin. He also knew that the these well hidden mathematical clues would not be unraveled for years after his death. Well, it's been 300 years and I'm happy to report that they have been unraveled!

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    4. I am of the opinion that bessler wheel cannot be built Solely using clues left by bessler.. Wether the written one or otherwise...A very keen discerning mind plus a lot of common sense and a few innovative ideas are a prerequisite...If complete clues did exist they would have been already cracked long, long ago... Bessler was too paranoid to have left clues the way you say...He just couldn't trust anyone...This world is full of smart people.. Anyway, all this would be evidently proved when 2017 also passes unsuccessfully...

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    5. Some of the clues he left are very precise and easy to locate and interpret. Others are only symbolic and require much building or computer modeling to fully understand. All of the important mathematical clues I've found were contained in the two DT portraits of Bessler. He chose to put them in the portraits so that his face would be right next them. That was his way of making sure people realized that the secret was discovered by him. It's also very interesting that the only image of Bessler that we know exists comes from those two portraits! The reason that these clues were not cracked a long, long ago is because 999 out of 1,000 people who looked at the two DT portraits just dismissed them as scenes showing random collections of various items. Wrong! Almost everything in those portraits has either symbolic meaning or precise mathematical meaning relative to his wheels' mechanics. The most important of the two portraits is the second one showing Bessler in his workshop. Over the centuries many have studied the two portraits like me looking for information in them. They found nothing because just looking at the portraits is not enough. One must also be constantly building and trying to use the information in the portraits as a guide to constructing one of his wheels. That can take a ton of work which, of course, eliminated most from making any progress. I, however, by using simulation software was able to construct about 1500 virtual wheels and continuously modify them in the ways based on my interpretations of the DT portrait clues. Finally, last year I found success with one particular design all of whose parts and their specifications are shown in the DT portraits. When the details are revealed, fans of Bessler will be stunned. Soon what was considered impossible will become very possible, indeed!

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    6. Well, then let us wait and watch...So 2017 is going to be the deciding year...In the meanwhile, we should find out other methods in case the portrait clues fail..There must be a deadline... People shouldn't wait endlessly...One question always comes up...Why is that a simple wheel cannot be made to rotate by itself...

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    7. I agree that the search for perpetual motion must not end once Bessler's design is revealed. He obviously thought that his design was the best that would ever be found or even the only one that would ever be found! I have to disagree with that opinion. Bessler only tried 100 different designs. Perhaps if he had tried 200 he would have found another design that also worked. I'm hoping that once Bessler's design is revealed, the principle it uses can be used to make other designs work which might be able to produce more power. In any event, 2017, the 300th anniversary of the completion of the Kassel wheel, will be an important one in the history of Bessler's wheels!

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    8. Even if is unable to produce sufficient power there are other ways it could be made use of...The very fact that something turns by itself should stun the world..It could turn a fan for cooling purpose...A mini model could be placed on a table like a paper weight and this could provide some amusement...Also as a toy..Etc..We can find many such uses..

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  24. What I mean is that the wheel structure also calls for special attention.. Bessler had all this covered and never revealed much about this..The lever-weight design has to match or fit in the segment or slot in the wheel structure...When all this is taken care of you won't need the cords...

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  25. Certain things cannot be obtained through simulations... Building bessler wheel successfully is more easily done through hands-on approach...But convincing people like you is almost next to impossible... Don't mind...

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    1. I concur, if it is in conjunction with mental simulation to visualize the mechanical progression.

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  26. Would like to share the below joke heard recently elsewhere;... Three prisoners were sentenced to death..A French, German and the third Belgium..When the French was asked for his last wish, he said that he would like to drink the exquisite French wine, the German stated that he would like to make a long speech..And the Belgium guy said, " I would like to get shot before the German makes the speech"...Lol..

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  27. Yes...Very high mental racking can yield great results...Many of fundamental physics discoveries were mentally realized... Bessler wheel design realization also has to be this way...

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  28. I have my own doubts...How can the two portraits help solve bessler riddle...I think it may help with the measurements but what is needed is the secret of arrangement of weights.. Without this secret design we can very well visualize the outcome after Ken's book is out... While pursuing bessler wheel we should never forget the greatest clue stated by Karl...Artful Arrangement..

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  29. The lever-weight mechanism are the main game players...They sort of perform a typical see-saw like act in every rotation, well synchronized and incessantly...The descending side ones exert the force as the ascending ones float...This unique movement is the second secret coming only after the arrangement pattern of the weights...Here, I would like to ask if the codes hidden in the two portraits, as claimed, can help us in solving the mystery...

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  30. @ SK

    The arrangement of the weighted levers inside of a one-direction wheel is actually childishly simple. Their pivots are arranged to form the vertices of a regular octagon. However, one must know exactly how big that octagon is inside of the drum relative to the drum's radius. Ideally, one wants the largest axle center to pivot center distance as possible and the largest lever pivot center to weight center distance as possible. Bessler found the ideal ratio for these to maximize torque for a given weight mass. Also, one must know the masses of the levers and the weights that were attached to them in his various size wheels as well as the unique ratio of the lever to weight masses in them. The torque of the wheel is not just created by the descending side weighted levers. Actually, all of the weighted levers work together at any instant to keep their center of gravity on the descending side of the axle. If the motion of any of the eight weighted levers is interrupted in any way (such as by one of them getting entangled with a coordinating cord, the failure of one of those cords, a broken spring, etc.), then the center of gravity will not be kept on the descending side of the axle during drum rotation, but, rather, will immediately drop to the punctum quietus located directly vertically below the axle as the axle torque drops to zero. Accumulated angular momentum may be sufficient to allow the wheel to make many rotations after such a problem develops, but it will eventually come to a stop. One should think of all of the weighted levers inside of a clockwise rotating drum between its 9:00 and 3:00 positions as "floating". The balance is exquisitely delicate and this requires precise placement of the coordinating cords between the weighted levers and precisely applied spring tension. When all of about two dozen factors are correct in one's attempt to duplicate one of Bessler's one-directional wheels, then it will work. If any one factor is too much in error, then one will just obtain another failed design for his efforts. All of these factors and the values needed for them are repeatedly indicated in the two DT portraits, but one must know where to look for them. It took me a solid decade of effort to find them all and, soon, the entire world will know about them. Most of the world could care less, of course. But, a very small and select group of serious Bessler researchers will, I predict, be very, very happy about the information I will provide. Most, I suspect, will wonder why they looked at these clues for years, yet could not "see" them. Again, my answer is that aside from studying extreme magnifications of the two DT portraits on a regular basis, one must, literally, be obsessed with building / simulating wheels. Tending toward being obsessive in matters of research, this was not that much of a problem for me. But, at some point one must conclude his research and publish his results. That, God willing, shall be done in time for the 300th anniversary of Bessler's mighty Kassel wheel!

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  31. The inevitable question...If you so strongly believe you have all the required clues then why publish the same..You could very well go ahead and build onevand reap the entire reward?...And, the inevitable answer... Don't possess complete info to undertake the build or simply not sure if it is the right track...Why just let someone take the credit by going through your book...There has already been enough publication and discussion on the matter in the past...Too much research has taken place...We are back to square one...yet another publication...This only spells another long debate/confusion...There is a potential threat of misguiding the enthusiasts by making them go through such large data...I am sure bessler wheel mystery can be solved by hard work and mental work only...

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    1. I am not building the wheel for several reasons. First, I can't profit off of the invention because I have really not invented anything. This invention belongs to Bessler, not me. I'm only Bessler's messenger boy in this matter! I would not be able to patent it and, even if I did, it would not be long before others were infringing on the patent in various ways. Also, I'm only one person and something like this needs to have many people involved in it if it's ever going to become some sort of commercial power source. I also have several other subjects I want to do research in and will not have as much time in the future to devote to Bessler's wheels as I currently do. While his 3 foot diameter Gera prototype wheel is fairly easy to build, its power output is very low. There will be others who will want to make full size replicas of his bidirectional Merseburg and Kassel wheels and such a project really requires a lot of time, effort, crafting skill, and better equipment than I have available. I want others to pursue the subject based on the information I have obtained. 999 out of a 1,000 who obtain the book will only read it and have the satisfaction of understanding how his wheels worked. Maybe 1 out of a 1,000 will actually build something and probably start with the 3 foot diameter toy wheel. Of those that successfully complete one, maybe only 1 in 100 will go on to try to build a larger version. I'm quite sure that the volume will lead to much debate and that's really a good thing, imo. I hope it stimulates discussion of Bessler's wheels all over the world and, by showing they were real, motivates people to look for different types of devices capable of pm. Yes, I quite agree that Bessler's wheel mystery can be solved by hard work and mental work and that exactly what I had to do to reach the point where I could right a book on the subject. However, it is a big mistake to think that is all that is required. Many have, over the years, done just that and have nothing to show for it. They would have had success if they had found the extra clues that I did! This book has a lot of surprises in it for its readers.

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    2. Dear Suresh Kumar, although not a party to this particular discussion, if I might be allowed to interject just a bit here?

      Yes, it is as you say, that, and the other points you make are good ones as well, being all spot-on pertinent and necessary.

      It is an all-consuming madness form that spurs him on. What else?

      Really, the ONLY question attending is: When and where is it to all end?

      I had suggested earlier, and rather naughtily I admit, that it is to be only with death, finally, the worms doing their needed work very finally. Seemingly, as judging by how long this madness-in-miniature has been allowed to fester cancerously thus far, THESE ONLY are to be of any relief from the sheer skein of woven nuttiness he has woven, a creation of an as-yet indefinable mental aberration, that leads all of victimage inexorably to Nowhere Land directly, painful step, by painful step!

      He most certainly WAS "drummed-out" from the BWF for this self-same, maximally irritating behavior, and this practically as tarred and feathered, too! As to this the record is clear, like crystal, and is accessible easily for reviewing. Take a look.

      (Psst! Frankly, just between you and me, Suresh, I suspect that saintly editorial patience IS getting dangerously near to hitting it's nearly emptied bottom and then, like some marvelous lightening flash come-out of the ether like a miracle, The Great Editorial Hammer will descend without mercy, FINALLY, this landing square-upon a most intransigent, irredeemably clueless, and ghastly overbearing big head. But, let's keep this little info bit between us, OK? By patient observance, we shall see how soon this.)

      And, just think, Suresh! ALL of those millions upon millions of limited vocabulary words, arranged in this that and the other dozen or-so boring ways, square-toed, humorless and colorless non-creative as they were, and likely always are to be, ALL of these having added-up-to exactly, precisely . . . N-O-T-H-I-N-G!!!

      Sad, isn't it?

      Keep up the search, Suresh. You may hit on it.

      James



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    3. "Really, the ONLY question attending is: When and where is it to all end?"

      There is, quite fortunately, an alternative ending to the one involving death followed by "the worms doing their needed work very finally."

      That alternative ending involves...Success! That is the ending I prefer and believe I have finally achieved!

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  32. Ken, why do you think you will sell 1000 copies? 😂

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    1. I just used the figure of 1,000 copies for statistical purposes. It's sales may do better or worse depending on a lot of factors beyond my control. So, I keep the focus on getting the research completed and written up for publication. No research can ever be considered finished until it is published in some form. Actually, if only one copy sold that led a serious Bessler wheel researcher to successfully duplicate one of Bessler's wheels, then my research will have served its purpose and I will be content!

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  33. A DIY besslerwheel kit with the book can fetch more...It would greatly help if there is an end chapter devoted to this...A schematic showing step by step build....Also, a chapter on the mysterious aspect of gravity...Other uses of the wheel if not for power generation...Also, a chapter on how the wheel defies gravity as well as the many who tried to uncover the mystery...In my opinion, the reasons stated by you aren't convincing why you opt to publish...Rather than go for the build...You can't let such an ancient mystery simply slip through fingers...As for the low power output... Bessler didn't feel so...It was said that a man would be uplifted and thrown if tried to stop the wheel in motion...Also, there wouldn't have been so much activity during demo at Bessler's residence if it was felt that the wheel was of no use...Also, there wouldn't have been so many distractors at that time... Anything that uses gravity or sheds light on gravity would be greatly lauded in today's time... Anything to do with green energy for that matter...

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    1. Everything you mention is in the volume. I have an entire chapter that explains, in detail, how the mechanics of his wheels worked and where the energy they outputted came from. That is for the physicists who will be stunned when it is announced that the design has led to a working physical wheel. Watch how quickly their "educated" opinions about such matters change when that happens! The construction details I give are for the 3 foot diameter Gera prototype that only outputted a fraction of a watt of power. But I also give the construction details for both the Merseburg and Kassel wheels with outputs of 25 and 50 watts. There is a final chapter that gives the various factors for the construction of all of Bessler's wheels including his planned, but never constructed "super wheel" with a power output of 6.67 kilowatts. Unfortunately, it is 40 feet in diameter! I certainly do not intend to let what I've discovered slip through my fingers and that is one of the main reasons for the publication. I'm not bothered by not being the one to build a physical replica of one of Bessler's wheels. There are many others out there right now who will be only too glad to do so if they can get some accurate information that will assure them of success for their effort. That's my job: to get that information to them and it's not a job I take lightly. I think I've done a good job of it and time will tell if I'm right...

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  34. One final clarification...If someone replicates Bessler wheel on his own efforts completely post your book publication, then who really goes to get the entire credit... Would you feel your book was the main contributor...

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    1. If someone can use either different clues from the ones I found in the two DT portraits or a different interpretation of the same clues I found in those portraits to derive a design for a working wheel, then there would, obviously, be a conflict as to who had re-discovered "the" design that Bessler found and used. I am, of course, highly confident that will not be happening. I believe Bessler only had a single working design and its precise details are only contained in the two DT portraits. The probability of two different working designs emerging from Bessler writings is, imo, next to zero. But, I won't say it is absolutely zero because maybe this is a final surprise Bessler had in store for the world! As in all things, time will tell...

      Over the years I have read much about various other clues in his writings and admittedly there are such clues, but they tend to be of a very general nature regarding the internal mechanics and operation of his wheels. There's nothing there that will allow one to immediately start building something that he can have confidence will work. With the DT portrait clues, the situation is different. One has precise values for the components of the drum's inner mechanics and replication becomes much easier. That, imo, is why Bessler put that information into the two portraits. Incredibly, he actually hid them by putting them in plain sight! Many times in his writings, he is on the edge of revealing some important detail of his wheels' internal mechanics when, suddenly, he stops and just gives us a line like:

      "I don't want to go into the details here of how suddenly the excess weight is caused to rise. You can't comprehend these matters, or see how true craftsmanship can rise above innate lowly tendencies (as does a weight above the point of application of a lever)" (page 357)

      What he is avoiding discussing here is how the mechanics of his wheels managed to continually raise the center of gravity of the drum's weighted levers at a rate equal to the rate that the rotation of the drum was trying to lower it. That little feat requires a constant input of energy from some source. Note, however, that he says that he does not want to go into the detail "here" or in that particular portion of AP. I interpret that as meaning that he did intend to go into the details of it somewhere else. That somewhere else, however, was not AP. He eventually decided that "the" secret would be provided in greater detail in DT, but when we read that work we find only slightly less vague descriptions like:

      "...these weights are themselves the PM device, the 'essential constituent parts' which must of necessity continue to exercise their motive force (derived from the PM principle) indefinitely - so long as they keep away from the center of gravity." (page 191)

      We learn from this line only that his wheels work because they can maintain their imbalance by keeping the center of gravity of their weights on one side of the axle during drum rotation. That's nice, but how did they do that?

      So, after much, much searching, I found myself always coming back to the same place...the two DT portraits. Because of their location as frontispieces, they actually dominate DT and offer the only image we have of Bessler. Indeed, both of the portraits only use a single image of the inventor! I could see only one reason for this. They contain very important information about his wheels and he wanted to make sure that information would be associated with only one person: himself! Soon I will be providing the serious Bessler student with a complete guide to that information he wanted everyone to credit to him. Be prepared to be totally amazed!

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  35. Why not just combine different elements to achieve a perpetual gravity wheel? We have several to choose from. Like; water, air pressure, weights, magnets, gravity, enertia, and so on.

    Just using one element is like trying to make a delicious cake using only flour and nothing else. You need several ingredients to make it taste like a delicious cake.

    If you try to use what's only in the box, you'll get the same result every time....a non moving wheel. Thus, "think outside the box".

    Try using the unlimited resources available to you. If you mix fast moving cold air with hot air and moisture, you might produce a tornado. If you spin water at a high rpm inside a spiral tube and eject it out of a tiny opening, you might produce a Clem engine.

    Just try a new approach and use the wonderful elements around you.

    Perpetualman.

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    1. In your "different elements" list, you neglected to mention...springs! These, imo, were what allowed Bessler to find success while everyone else failed to do so. In all of MT there are only about three designs that use springs. Bessler did not like to talk about them and I've always assumed that was because he knew if he mentioned them, his critics would immediately use that to state that his wheels were powered by windup, spring powered clockwork movements. But, there could be another reason he avoids talking about them and illustrating them in MT. That would be because his working wheel design was critically dependent upon spring tension in order to operate.

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  36. Bessler wheel makes use of weights, gravity, inertia, centrifugal forces,lever principle,etc,....It is just we aren't able get the right design...

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    1. A correct interpretation of the two DT portrait clues will provide you with that "right design".

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    2. I'm surprised "your publisher" limits you to 1000 pages, Ken. In my experience they always talk in limits of 100,000 words or less, not including diagrams etc.

      This from "Getting Published",

      "If you analyse the contents of a typical bookshelf in an academic library, you will notice that many of the books are between 272 and 320 pages in length. The golden extent for many publishers is 288 pages (about 90–100,000 words without tables or figures). Why is 288 pages a golden extent? Because this length is sufficient for the author to develop their argument fully. It is also perceived as a full-sized book hence it is quite acceptable for the publisher to charge the full normal price. For the publisher, it is an economic size – 18 printed sheets (books tend to be printed on 16-page sheets) give a nice balance between the costs of cover and inside pages."

      JC

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    3. 1,000 pages!
      that'll take a helluva lot of crayons to finish colouring every one.

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    4. When Ken publishes a book, they have to send out lumberjacks to cut down extra trees. Entire forests have been cleared!

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    5. if ken have besler secrets is worth whole forrests. i wish him best for book.

      boris

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    6. @ John

      My publisher is AuthorHouse Books and all of their titles are POD or "Print on Demand". Nothing is printed up until and unless they receive orders for the books. This method can produce from 1 to 1,000 copies in a run and each copy can be from 100 to 1,000 pages in length. Size is 6 x 9 inches, but they have larger sizes available. It's all done by a giant machine that even packages them up and drop ships them to fulfill orders from bookstores and individuals. If one's magnum opus exceeds that, he will have to put the work out as a two volume set. I like this method instead of "traditional" publishing because its quick and one does not have to put up with quirky agents or editors who keep trying to rewrite his book to match what they think it should be to make it more profitable. With POD the author is his own agent and editor! The author retains all rights to his work including any cover artwork provided by the publisher. The royalties they pay are also a lot higher than with traditional publishers with higher overhead costs.


      @ Boris

      Thanks for the well wishes. I'm putting extra effort into this title because I know it will be a relief to those who have been banging their heads against a brick wall for decades trying to knock a hole in it so the secret of Bessler's wheels on the other side will shine through to them. Well, the wall has been breached and soon that blinding glow will shine through. Have your sunglasses ready everyone!

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  37. Nothing new there Ken, I've been using POD for seveal years. Probably my mistake but I thought you were saying you had a publisher. POD works well for me, I wish you luck.

    JC

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The True Story of Bessler’s Perpetual Motion Machine - Update

At the end of March we sold our house and moved in with my daughter, son-in-law and granddaughter, expecting to be there for no more than tw...