Friday, 31 December 2021


I hope everyone had a Merry Christmas, we certainly did, and the New Year 2022, looks like being the best ever, when the secret of Bessler’s wheel is revealed. 

It is easy to forget why we are all still believers in Bessler’s claim to have invented a perpetual motion machine.  Yes, we are all familiar with Bessler’s words and the witness statements, but what evidence is there against his perpetual motion machine?  One - they are said to be impossible, but that only applies to isolated systems with no external source of energy.  The second piece of evidence is that of Bessler’s maid.

 I have copied and pasted a paragraph from my book about Bessler, published in 1996!

In a document dated 28th November 1727, Orffyreus' maid makes the following statement, as recorded by Strieder:

"The posts had been hollowed out and contained a long thin piece of iron with a barb at the bottom which was attached to the shaft journal. Turning was carried out from Orffyreus' bedroom which was close to the machine, on a shelf behind the bed."

The first area of concern was the statement that the maid made concerning the secret mechanism. It was frankly, impossible. Whatever mechanism moved that wheel, there is absolutely no way that it could be driven by the means described. Twelve feet across or 3.6 metres - eighteen inches thick or 45.7 centimetres and weighing an estimated 700 lbs or 318 Kilograms, and the whole construction turned on a pair of bearings measuring just three-quarters of an inch! And what is more, accelerated from a very slow speed to one of between twenty-five and twenty-six revolutions per minute, in just three revolutions. The maid says that the posts were hollowed out and a barbed piece of iron inserted and connected to the shaft journal. Anyone giving reasonable consideration to this account of the maid's, will see that the power and strength required to keep a machine of this size turning, by applying its force through the bearings, would be enormous - and besides where would one find a metal of sufficient strength to withstand the tremendous load placed on it. Not only that - it had to be kept turning for almost eight weeks - and was expected do work; raise a box of bricks weighing seventy pounds and turn an Archimedean screw. Forget the problem of actually devising a mechanism which would operate inside a wooden post connected to a bearing at one end and a small wheel at the other!

Bessler’s wife had died in 1726 and only a few months later on the 28th November 1727,  the maid accused Bessler of fraud, this was shortly after Karl retired and although removing his patronage he gave Bessler the use of a house and garden in Karlshafen.  He also dismissed the maid’s accusations. He advanced Bessler five years salary to enable him to continue to develop and sell his wheel.  This marked the end of Karl’s protection against the slanderous publications of his enemies, Gärtner, Wagner and Borlach.  They grabbed the opportunity to lambast Bessler and his wheels with enthusiasm, driven by either jealousy or indignation.

The maid, Anne Rosine, from Mauersberg, a town less than 5 miles from Bessler’s father-in-law had been brought to Hesse Kassel, by Bessler and his new wife, as agreed between Bessler and his future father-in-law.  She had been a constant thorn in the side of the mayor and chief physician of Annaberg-Bucholz, Dr Christian Schumann. He had had her imprisoned twice for spreading malicious gossip about him and his family.

Christian Schumann agreed to the marriage as long as Bessler took the troublesome maid with him to Gera, some one hundred miles away in those days, plus of course a dowry.

The maid was often seen about the Landgrave’s court as witnessed by one of the female courtiers and it is possible that she met with Christian Wagner and/or Gärtner. Although Gärtner died in February of that same year 1727, he may have been the guiding force trying to out Bessler as a fraud.

As soon as he moved out of the castle and took up residence at Karlshafen, Bessler’s wife’s mother, now a widow with no money, suddenly arrived with her two other daughters and son-in-laws.  They joined forces with Bessler’s erstwhile maid and began to try to extort money and favours from him.  Suddenly out of Karl’s protection and being harassed by a small family of criminals, Bessler soon lost all of his money to their controlling and coercive behaviour.

So two pieces of evidence against Bessler and both deeply flawed.



  1. John,
    Sorry to be a nuisance, but what exactly were Bessler's words with regard the 1 to 4 ratio?
    I seem to recollect reading that, one can lift four, and that one can cause four to be lightly raised, or something similar.
    A one pound weight lifting a four pound weight is not the same as a one pound weight assisting the lifting of a four pound weight.
    Can both interpretations apply (as usual with Bessler's clues)?

  2. Here you go RH ..

    "a great craftsman would be that man who can 'lightly' cause a heavy weight to fly upwards! Who can make a pound-weight rise as 4 ounces fall, or 4 pounds rise as 16 ounces fall."

    – AP page 295

    "He will be called a great craftsman, who can easily/lightly (i.e. without much effort) throw a heavy thing high, and if one pound falls a quarter, it shoots four pounds four quarters high. &c."

    Alternative Translation of the AP passage re: Stewart Hughes, and Tinhead

    N.B. no units for quarters is given.


    1. Thanks Fletcher.
      I have a runner in the sim world.
      It is extremely chaotic, and irrational, my thoughts are that it is a problem with the program. The curious thing is i can't grasp what the error is. And i can't get the thing to function without the chaos. My thinking is that it has something to do with the principal of tightening a wheel nut, by holding the wheel the same side as the nut and applying the force to the other side of the wheel to tighten the nut (Left hand on the rim at 9, nut at 9 near the centre, and right hand at 3 tightening the nut).
      The heavy weight isn't so much raised in relation to the wheel, more that it is raised easily on the ascending side of the wheel. Just as you do not need a lot of force (proportionally) to stop the wheel turning when applying a lot of force to the wrench, the wheel doesn't need a lot of force to cause the raising of the weight.
      I'm trying to synchronise the movement so as to have a video that may show what is going on.


Suppose You Succeed! What’s Next?

What will you do if you succeed in building a device which is based on the same concept as Bessler’s wheel, or appears to be similar?  I kno...