Monday, 18 September 2017

Why Science is wrong about Bessler's Wheel

Science has taught us that perpetual motion machines are impossible, they violate the laws of physics and we are all wasting our time and our lives in chasing this fantasy. It's interesting to look at the support for both the scientific point of view and the dogmatic one.

Science relies initially on theory which is an idea held contingent upon 'evidence'. A theory can be a set of statements supported by evidence  that can be used to predict natural phenomena. Predictions are the fundamental support of theories and they evolve from empirical observations.

Even 'established' laws of physics are still theories though regarded as proven by evidence and the fulfilled predictions based on that evidence, but they are still subject to re-evaluation if either; new evidence comes to light; or a better (simpler) theory comes along that explains the same evidence.

Dogma or doctrine, on the other hand, could be a statement originating from a revelation, vision, image, dream, or thought or any other source of mental origin. Its support is faith. No evidence is required and neither is it necessarily sought. Reliable and consistent predictions are absent from faith related statements. Dogmas may change and evolve exclusively from human decision and not from any empirical observations.

Perpetual motionist's beliefs tend to fall somewhere between science and dogma. Adherents believe, for what seems to them to be good reason, that perpetual motion machines are possible, in particular, gravity enabled machines. I used the word 'enabled' with good reason as we have been told an infinite number of times (it seems!) that gravity is not an energy source. Leaving that aside for a moment, perpetual motionists feel intuitively that a weight driven machine could be made to run continuously with no additional input of energy other than that from falling weights.  It seems so obvious to them, and I include myself,  that we think that science must be wrong - at least in rejecting Bessler's wheel.

But, without a theory explaining how this might be achieved, the disciples of this belief can only be regarded in much the same way as members of a religious faith, who, requiring no evidence other than their own subjective certainty that what they believe must be true, exhibit blind faith when questioned on their convictions.  This may be regarded as too simplistic a view but without evidence to the contrary where does this strong but inexplicable certainty come from?

Well in this case, Johann Bessler's extremely convincing demonstrations of his wheels provides the strongest evidence ever reported about such machines.  The vast majority of people dismiss the very idea that Johann Bessler could possibly have built a genuine perpetual motion machine. Personally I don't like to use the term 'perpetual motion' about a weight driven machine; it isn't perpetual motion so much as continuous motion, providing the force of gravity is present.  Continuous motion sounds more believable too, not that that is any kind of criterion to support such a contention.

The laws of physics must remain unaffected by this machine; there can be no conflict with them, in which case the theories I spoke of earlier will remain intact and supported by the evidence provided by Bessler's machine.  Only the predictions are wrong about such machines being impossible.  As I said above, the predictions are subject to re-evaluation and in this case they will be once the proof is self-evident, in the form of a working model.

JC


Wednesday, 6 September 2017

September UPDATE - at last!

I have been extremely busy for the last few weeks and I apologise for being absent from this blog.

My log cabin is finished and my workshop which was to be in it, has had to be moved to the garage, which is more suitable for drilling and sawing etc  The log cabin is now my writing and drawing place and will provide a good space to complete the numerous illustrations required for the book I am engaged in writing  I read somewhere that a surprisingly large proportion of authors prefer to work in a quiet bolt-hole out in the garden. Perhaps there they can let their creative juices flow away from the distractions they’d otherwise encounter in the main home or in a traditional office space. Not even a phone for many, and certainly no spouse, kids or visitors to disturb them. Perhaps this, together with the peace and tranquility which the garden lends, is the secret to their success …well you never know, it might work for me too!

I've had a number of emails and posts asking when I aim to be back so here is an update for now and normal service will return shortly

The code breaking has continued despite the hiatus caused by moving house and helping my family in several tasks, including building another log cabin, clearing and tidying another one's garden and of course my own self-imposed plans.

I read with fascination the many claims to know the secret to Bessler's wheel, and remember how many times I also made the same claim, only to discover that I was wrong.  I told myself back then, that I would not make the same mistake again...until I had found a work-around that would satisfy the demands of Bessler's wheel, without conflicting with the accepted laws of physics - well I have known of such a concept for several months but I was unable to figure out how to build it into a working wheel.  Now I have a complete design and it is all due to Bessler's clues and all I have to do is build it.

But I think that I have said too much already, I don't want to follow a certain person's lead on the BW forum, who has so far achieved about 90,000 views without actually saying anything!  So although I believe I have the secret I don't want anyone thinking I am making a claim to actually have it, I just think/hope I have...along with all the many others who also think they do.

The book so far contains over 30 illustrations, all of which will be refined before it becomes available as a download.  There are possibly going to be another 20!  If you think that is a lot, I have already combined some and eliminated others.  The reason for so many is that there are so many solid clues in Bessler's work that each step requires an explanation and an illustration of what it is and how it is used.  I'm confident that there will be little or no argument about my explanations, but I want to get it as precise and as good as I can get it, before I release it into the world outside!

So back to the log cabin - I must post a picture of it in my next post, it is thing of beauty and I am inordinately proud of it, considering I built the whole thing single handed.

Back soon, happy wheeling!

JC


Friday, 14 July 2017

The Legend of Bessler's Wheel and my latest Update

I'm putting the brief account of Johann Bessler's Wheel back up for a short time because I am concentrating on writing (rewriting!) an account of the codes I've deciphered and explaining just how they apply to Bessler's wheel.  I'm sure that I have finally got to the solution but my saying so doesn't make it so, and I have two options, one is to make the wheel according to my perceived design, courtesy of Bessler - and the other is describe everything in detail including all coded material, how the wheel worked and including photos of my own wheel, step by step. from start to finish. I'm taking both options.

I plan to make a video of the wheel and show how I obtained the solution but that may take a little longer and I have procrastinated for too long!  Time is slipping by and I must begin work in earnest on building the wheel itself, and write my account of it too, so the video will have to wait.  

So I shall close the comments feature after a few days and get to work on the wheel - at last!  I'll update things here as and when there is something to show.

THE LEGEND OF BESSLER'S WHEEL

The legend of Bessler’s Wheel began on 6th June 1712, when Johann Bessler announced that he had invented a perpetual motion machine and he would be exhibiting it in the town square in Gera, Germany, on that day.  Everyone was free to come and see the machine running.  It took the form of a wheel mounted between two pillars and ran continuously until it was stopped or its parts wore out. The machine attracted huge crowds.  Although they were allowed to examine its external appearance thoroughly, they could not view the interior, because the inventor wished to sell the secret of its construction for the sum of 10,000 pounds – a sum equal to several millions today.

News of the invention reached the ears of high ranking men, scientists, politicians and members of the aristocracy.  They came and examined the machine, subjected it to numerous tests and concluded that it was genuine. Only one other man, Karl, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, was allowed to view the interior and he testified that the machine was genuine. He is a man well-known in history as someone of the greatest integrity, and  the negotiations between Bessler and Karl took place against a background in which Karl acted as honest broker between the warring nations of Europe; a situation which required his absolute rectitude both in appearance and in action.

There were several attempts to buy the wheel, but negotiations always failed when they reached an impasse – the buyer wished to examine the interior before parting with the money, and the inventor fearing that once the secret was known the buyer would simply leave without paying and make his own perpetual motion machine, would not permit it.  Sadly, after some thirty years or more, the machine was lost to us when the inventor fell to his death during construction of another of his inventions, a vertical axle windmill.

However, the discovery of a series of encoded clues has led many to the opinion that the inventor left instructions for reconstructing his wheel, long after his death.  The clues were discovered during the process of investigating the official reports of the time which seemed to rule out any chance of fraud, hence the  interest in discovering the truth about the legend of Bessler’s wheel.

My own curiosity was sparked by the realisation that an earlier highly critical account by Bessler's maid-servant, which explained how the wheel was fraudulently driven, was so obviously flawed and a lie, that I was immediately attracted to do further research. In time I learned that there was no fraud involved, so the wheel was genuine and the claims of the inventor had to be taken seriously.

The tests which the wheel was subjected to involved lifting heavy weights from the castle yard to the roof, driving an Archimedes water pump and an endurance test lasting 56 days under lock and key and armed guard.  Bessler also organised demonstrations involving running the wheel on one set of bearings opened for inspection – and then transferring the device to a second set of open bearings, both sets having been examined to everyone’s satisfaction, both before, after and during the examination.

So the only problem is that modern science denies that Bessler's wheel was possible, but my own research has shown that this conclusion is wrong.  There is no need for a change in the laws of physics, as some  have suggested, we simply haven't covered every possible scenario in the evaluating the number of possible configurations.

I have produced copies of all Bessler's publications, with English translations.  They can be obtained by clicking on the appropriate links on the right.

JC

Friday, 7 July 2017

Why a Gravity-wheel is said to be impossible - but isn't!

The common explanation for the failure of a perpetual motion machine to run continuously, is often explained in a simple phrase - energy in, equals energy out.

As Dr. Donald E. Simanek, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania, explains, https://www.lhup.edu/~dsimanek/museum/peopl/people.htm 
"all motions of the wheel and its parts are repeated exactly during each complete revolution. So if a weight moves to a larger radius once per cycle, it must also be pulled back to the original radius later during the cycle. The work done in changing the radius by a certain amount from large to small is equal and opposite to the work done in changing the radius by the same amount from small to large. We gain no net energy per cycle."  

This is true and demonstrates why all the 'experts' refuse to accept Bessler's claims to have designed and built a working perpetual motion machine.  But the description he gives above does not cover all possibilities.  I know of at least two alternative concepts that will avoid his conclusion.  In fairness to him I know he showed a number of historic designs which clearly did not work and perhaps he was only referring to them.  The designs all depend on the use of gravity as an enabling medium, as do mine and many others - notice I did not say energy source!

I know (and have known and believed for at least 40 years!) that gravity does not provide the energy for a theoretical gravity wheel, but the falling weights do.  It's a curious fact, this assertion that gravity is not an energy source, because we tap it every day in the form of falling weight clocks, falling water to generate electricity and possibly a hundred other ways we depend on upon its existence.

It isn't a source of energy, but if it isn't then what is it?.  If, as I and many other here believe, Bessler used the falling weights to drive his wheel, they provided the energy to make it rotate, but without the force of gravity to make the weights fall, then the wheel wouldn't turn.

Current energy sources include solar, wind, water, geothermal, nuclear energy and of course coal, oil and natural gas.  Some of these terms describe the source before conversion to usable energy.  Our potential use of falling weights also uses gravity energy before conversion.  Yet gravity is not a source of energy but the others listed above all are.

My personal opinion is that those who criticise the notion that the energy comes from gravity are being pedantic.  Even though I knew that gravity isn't an energy source way back in the 1970s I still believe that because it causes objects of mass to fall, that action can be turned to advantage.  It's like criticising the term 'petrol' or 'gas' or 'diesel' engine because it isn't the liquid fuel that supplies the energy, but rather the heat or explosive force that the fuel provides when it ignites.  The fuel, like gravity is an enabler.  One thing I'm sure of is that 'gravity wheel' or 'gravity engine' is how they will be referred to in the media, once they are verified as legitimate.

On the other hand we refer to water wheels, as driven by water and not as gravity-enabled.  But by implication we assume that the steam engine is driven by steam and not by water, we still have to heat the water to get the steam which expands to drive a piston.  We might call it an external combustion engine as opposed to the internal combustion engine referred to above.

We know what we mean by these energy terms so when I say the gravity wheel taps the energy of gravity you know what I mean.

Any way be assured that Mr Simanek is right as far as he goes but he has not considered any possible work-arounds, and they hold the key. I look forward to the day he discovers the true Bessler's perpetual motion machine

JC

Saturday, 1 July 2017

Mike Senior - Translator of Johann Bessler's Works, has Passed away.

Back in 1996 I had all these pieces of paper all in German, which were the culmination of many years research into the life of Johann Bessler.  I was utterly stuck because I had all this information and I could not read it.  I had copies of 'Grundlicher Bericht', 'Apologia Poetica' and 'Das Triumphirende', in my hands and no way of knowing what it said.  I obtained quotes for translating it and I recall DT was going to cost in excess of £3000!  No way could I have afforded that.

With little hope of success I wrote a letter to the local newspaper explaining my situation and asking if there was anyone who might like to try and help me out.  Imagine my surprise and pleasure to get not one but five responses!  To cut a long story short, four of them gradually dropped out, only Mike Senior remained.  He turned out to be one in a million.  He was completely computer illiterate and translated everything in handwriting, filled with a profusion of notes about things Bessler had written.

His first task was to translate all the letters and news reports of the day, then he did Gruendlicher Bericht, but his hardest task was Apologia Poetica which unfortunately was in poor condition and nothing like the copies you can download from the internet now.  Some of pages were overprinted from the adjacent page, ink migration, and made reading the text very difficult.  Finally he undertook the mighty Das Triumphirende.  It took many months to obtain finished copies of each book and then I had the task of transcribing his handwritten sheest of paper onto my computer, readying it for printing and then finding a method of obtaining finished printed copies.

Mike and I met many times for a beer etc, he enjoyed strong beer with whisky chasers, but not for me, I would have fallen sleep!  We discussed Bessler and his machine and although Mike never believed in Bessler, he did enjoy reading him.

Mike had a degree in 18th century German and spoke German fluently.  He could also recite from memory much ancient Greek literature, also had a degree in Botany and was a permanent freelance researcher for Warwickshire Museum, providing annual reports on the flora of this county.  He was also an avid amateur astronomer and had his own telescope and travelled to witness various eclipses.  He was a regular contributor to one of the top science magazines whose name temporarily escapes me, but I know he was in long running debate on the origin of the universe, string theory and quantum mechanics!  He used to try to explain all this to me but I confess it went clean  over my head.

He was originally a school teacher but got bored repeating himself each year  and said he didn't like kids any way!  So he left to take up his favourite past time which was walking the high ways and byeways of Warwickshire recording all that he saw of a botanical nature.

Latterly he suffered some serious hip problems and had to undergo five hip operations in one year and never really recovered.

I'll miss his great sense of humour and his wonderful laugh; he told some risqué jokes but you could not help but  join in, he was that kind of man.

Please remember Mike, we owe what we know of Bessler's words to him, and to those who seek inaccuracies in his translations, bear in mind he asked me if I wanted something that read well or a literal word for word translation and I chose the former, so Bessler's words carry a flavour of Mike's personal inflections.

Here's to you Mike,

JC

Wednesday, 28 June 2017

Bessler's Wheel - the World's First Working Perpetual Motion Machine.

While I was away on holiday I got to thinking about Bessler's wheel and how important it could be in the near future.  Then I realised how, over the many years I have researched this subject, that I had become so habituated to thinking of it as a viable machine that I believed that it was just a matter of time before it reappeared as an alternative source of energy.

Then I was reminded forcibly, what an amazing, even stunning, thing it would be if we could reconstruct it and prove all those know-it-all 'experts'  wrong and watch them squirm and wriggle out of their rigid, inflexible mindset!  It isn't as if I hadn't known what a wonderful discovery this would be, but I had become like those above, too accustomed to the idea and subconsciously I 'knew' it was simply a matter of showing them the evidence and the rest would follow.

But of course that isn't the way it will be, but when I finish the wheel,I have some ideas which I hope will drown out the voices of scorn and derision.  But in the mean time I would like to take another brief look at the evidence that supports the conclusion that Bessler's Perpetual motion machine really worked.  So here are the basic facts relating to the wheels and the inventor which led many of us to believe Johann Bessler's wheel was genuine and not a scam.

I'll keep to the most basic facts.  Ok, so all the wheels were demonstrated in front of large crowds.  People were encouraged to examine each wheel and were permitted to to stop and start them, or even slow them down, as often they wished.

The first two wheels would begin to spin as soon as the brake was released.  This ability to begin to spin as soon as they were allowed to do so, showed that the wheels were permanently out-of-balance, even when stationary.  They could only spin in one direction, which seems obvious given that they were always out of balance. 

Due to accusations that the wheels must have been driven by clock-work, Bessler subsequently introduced a different wheel design, which meant it could turn in either direction.  This one needed a gentle push in either direction, from which start it accelerated to its top speed, approximately half that of the one-way wheels.  This was to counter the accusation that the wheels needed winding up.  I suppose that he thought it would prove difficult to produce a wheel which could still be wound up and yet spin in either direction as required by each witness/examiner.

He exhibited in total, four wheels and the last one, another bi-directional version, measured twelve feet in diameter and eighteen inches in thickness.

It could raise a bucket of stones weighing 70 pounds from the castle yard to the roof.  It could drive an archimedes screw for pumping water.  It underwent an endurance test lasting 54 days in a locked and sealed room with a 24 hour guard posted outside.

During the many public examinations, the wheel was set up on one pair of supports started and eventually stopped at which point it was carried across to a second set of supports.  Both sets of supports were thoroughly examined before and after and no sign of fraud was discovered.  The tapered bearings at each end of the six foot axle were just three quarter of an  inch in thickness. Each bearing shell was open for inspection.

During a period of approximately twelve years the various wheels were examined by numerous people, among them royalty, scientists, sceptics, professors, engineers and politicians.  No single case exists of anyone anywhere finding how Bessler did it.

But one man was allowed to see the interior of the wheel, under a strict oath that he could never reveal the secret.  His name was Karl, the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, a famous and highly respected man, whose castle at Kassel was where the final wheel was displayed.  He demanded access to the secret as a condition that he provided Bessler with a place to exhibit the wheel.  He was a keen amateur scientist and had already had a history of sponsoring the steam experiments of Denis Papin and he was not prepared to be misled by a swindling con artist.  That is why he insisted on seeing for his own eyes how the machine worked.

Gottfreid Leibniz the famous scientist, philosopher, historian, engineer, and designer of the calculating machine  among many other inventions  - literally a polymath - was at first sceptical of Bessler's clams, but gradually through some extended communications between others who had seen the machine in action, and his own two lengthy and thorough examinations of the machine became convinced of Bessler's sincerity.

It was he who suggestd the number of tests that Bessler needed to arrange in order to convince the sceptics without exposing the machine's interior.

It is worth mentioning that if Bessler had been discovered behaving fraudulently he had a very good chance of being beheaded.  No prince of that time would ever allow such a crime to go unpunished and there are many examples available to support this conclusion.  In his younger days as a miltary leader, Karl exerted the strictest discipline upon his troops and execution was used where he felt it necessary.

But what of Bessler himself?  Was there any indication in his actions that might have suggested an intention to defraud his patron or his public?  He published three items all of which extolled the virtues of his machine, and explaining that it was for sale for £20,000; the same figure as offered by the British Board of Longitude which was set up to find a reliable way of estimating a ship's longitudinal position at sea, and arguably a more valuable invention.  These publications contain information about the inventor's search for the secret of perpetual motion and how he strived to overcome the scornful dismissal of his self-imposed task.  He also stated that if he failed to sell his secret then he would die content in the knowledge that he would be acknowledged post humously - this is not the action of a fraudster.  It also implies that there was or would be information available after his death which would provide vindication for his claim.

He declares in one booklet, Apologia Poetica, that those who wish to know the secret of his machine should examine the book closely.  The book contains an obviously coded section, plus other apparent pieces of code, all of which when combined with other features in the two other booklets each strongly suggestive of additional coded information.

As I have said previously, I have made considerable progress in deciphering one particular type of code and have sufficient information to design and build one of Bessler's wheels.  I hope to complete this in the next few weeks or months and also publish the decoded information.

JC

Sunday, 25 June 2017

Update for June 2017

Returned from a few days in Spain where I went for some warmer weather,  just as the UK weather finally improved!  90 degrees in both countries at the same time!  Now I'm back and the weather here has returned to its normal grey skies etc.  Ah well, Spain was wonderful as usual so no regrets.

I've put two black boards in my new workshop which I'm using for drawing ideas, calculations and notes.  I know it's an old fashioned method, these days it's white boards, but I made my black boards for pennies and I'm too tight to pay for a piece of plastic for which they charge pounds!

I'm still working on finishing documenting all the clues I've used to accomplish the reconstruction of Bessler's wheel. On that subject I can say that when the wheel works it will be identical in concept and design to Bessler's.  Many people have argued that we can never know if it is the same as Bessler's, but in fact Bessler stated that the information was there for those who were prepared to look, well I have looked and I have found it. 

Elsewhere I read that it is estimated that nearly 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity, in addition, around 3 billion people cook and heat their homes using open fires and simple stoves burning biomass (wood, animal dung and crop waste) and coal. Plus, over 4 million people die prematurely every year as a result of illnesses attributable to household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels.

In the past I've talked of irrigation schemes as a useful Bessler wheel  application but I think these alarming figures above seem to me to provide a much better argument for the development of Bessler's wheel as a cheap/free source of energy for all those who do not have access to electricity or cannot afford it.

JC

Was Johann Bessler an Undiscovered Genius?

A recent casual comment about Johann Bessler got me thinking; was Bessler a genius?  My first thought was to dismiss the idea because there...