Sunday, 26 April 2015

Bessler 's Curious Hand Gesture

I had considered posting the subject of this blog on the forum but decided against because of its length.  I have no objection to anyone taking the suject to the forum for further discussion.

Many years ago I commented on what I described as the poorly drawn hands in the main portrait of Bessler.  I wrote this because to me the hands looked unnatural and were therefore not well drawn. Subsequently I believed that I had discovered that the particular arrangement of the middle and ring finger being pressed together while the other fingers were held apart was a secret method of recognition among the Freemasons mainly in formal portraits.  I thought that this was probably not too surprising given the apparent involvement of Karl the Landgrave in the Masonic brotherhood. The subject of Freemasons has come up from time to time and suggestions have been made that perhaps Bessler was a Mason.   If the house of Hess at Kassel was deeply involved in Freemasonry then there is little doubt that Bessler was either made aware of it, or learned of it while he stayed at Hessen-Kassel.

Coincidentally the man to whom Baron Fischer wrote, in support of Bessler's wheel, Dr Desaguliers, Sir Isaac Newton's curator of experiments at the Royal Society, was, himself a keen Freemason and was mainly responsible for the upsurge in membership all over Europe. However further research indicates that Desaguliers was not connected with Freemasonry until 1719 and did not induct anyone on the continent before 1731 so I think we can dismiss any connection of Bessler to Freemasonry, at least while he was at Hess-Kassel.   Neither is there any evidence that Karl the Landgrave of Hess-Kassel was a member and anyway, it was too early for his involvement, although several of his descendants were.

As for Ken's findings on the subject of Bessler's portraits, I am neither supporting nor dismissing his work on deciphering the meanings he claims to have found - I simply don't know..  

In the main portrait Bessler's middle and ring fingers on his left hand, are held close together and anyone who wishes to research the significance of this in a formal portrait will find a wealth of information about the use of this symbol by the Masonic fraternity.  But I think we can ignore that information for the reason I have given above, so why was it used in his case?

The symbols shown in the portrait; the skull, book and jar are commonly used in art to denote the passing of time and our ultimate death and the words Memento Mori are ascribed to the notion.  It means remember, we die.  In my web site at http://www.theorffyreuscode.com/html/part_2_portrait.html I suggested a link to Mary Magdalene, Venus and the pentagram, which I admitted was highly dubious speculation.  In fact the answer is more prosaic.  I think that in addition to the alphanumeric cipher, as described on my website www.theorffyreuscode.com the two Roman letter 'M's in the bottom line below the portrait stand for Memento Mori.


But that still doesn't explain why Bessler used the curious finger gesture.  Around the year 1578 in Toledo or Madrid, Spain, the painter known as "El Greco", created a painting that is now called "El caballero de la mano al pecho" -- "The man with his hand on his chest."  In this painting the fingers , of his right hand are displayed as in Bessler's portrait except that Bessler has them resting on a book.  Space prevents me going into detail  about the various speculations about its meaning, but you can read a good review of the painting and its associated ideas at http://www.darkfiber.com/pz/chapter1.html

I should also point out that dozens of famous, and infamous people have had portraits done in which their fingers have adopted similar positions including Newton and Hitler, some are obviously accidental due to the position of their hands against their hip or leg..

My own take from this with regard to Bessler is this.  We know that in later life he published documents arguing for the unification of the Christian religions. I assume he included Catholic, Protestant, Jews and the Jesuits.  He spent a period of time in Prague meeting frequently with a Jesuit priest and Jewish Rabbi, and I suspect that it was there that he learned of the the hand gesture which is a type of Jewish secret sign that was used among the crypto-Jews (i.e., false Christians) of 16th century Toledo to recognize each other, much like a secret masonic handshake.  Bessler's gesture may originate from there, or another theory has it that the gesture was recommended by St. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits, in his Spiritual Exercises? There are also a number of paintings showing the virgin Mary using the same gesture while feeding the baby Jesus   The problem with all of these is that they place the hand on the chest or breasts as in the above picture.

I can imagine that Bessler might choose to use the Marrano gesture as it is called, but why not place it on his chest?  It looks to me as though his left arm originally came diagonally towards his chest ending up either with the hand at his chest or near to it.  The current left hand looks almost like a disembodied part simply placed there at the last moment.  Perhaps he intended to place it on his chest and then changed it at the last moment.  I wondered if the reason for his change of heart (pun!) was due to the fact that Loyola required that the sign be made against the chest for each sin the believer had committed, and I doubt that Bessler would have wanted such a public display of his sins.

I should also mention that there is a medical condition which causes a similar positioning of the fingers and as an alternative, the ancient art of dactylonomy may require a similar finger positioning, although I haven't been able find that precise one!

Any suggestions welcome.

JC

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67 comments:

  1. Obviously it is a mechanism, now has anyone ever thought of actually building it to see what it is !

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    1. There are two fixed tilt points and the third tilt point the thumb is connected to the book.

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  2. John, you are onto something. But not all used the sign on their chest. King James I used it on his hip, and Newton on his other underarm. This is known as a Masonic sign. It has been identified as M for Masonry (Masonry is written with M both in English, French, Italian and German). Later there has been speculations about M for Mary.I guess Dan Brown has boosted that idea, maybe out of proportions. First the the arm was going in under the jackets or vests. We can imagine that the covered hand showed the "M" sign. As time passed the M sign was shown not only on the chest.

    My second book also describes that Bessler was a Rosicrucian/Mason. He knew all the methods and used them in the portraits (The hand) and in AP and MT (Geometry). Masonry = G = Geometry.(ancient geometry). Bessler also developed a new set of code system, based on the old Masonic and later Rosicrucian undocumented/secret methods. When Bessler FLASHES the standard Masonic and Rosicrucian methods he will have not one, but two advantages. He will be respected by other scholars, but most importantly he will disguise the fact that he actually uses a different/new set of code-system. I have documented both the old Masonic system and all the ways it has been applied, and Besslers new system in what has become 2 books.

    As an example. Besslers hand position is applied according to his own hidden geometric code. But the Masons and Rosicrucians would only see the "odd hand" as a Masonic sign. In this way he can keep his own methods hidden in plain sight even for the cleverest and educated Masons and RCs. So Bessler also was the inventor of a new cipher system superior to the method used by the other intelectuals of the time/s, and in the smoothest ways hid his information from them by mixing it with their "known" system.

    This in not speculations on my behalf. I may be able to prove some of it by private communication, but it will become public knowledge, and both the standard Masonic, the refined RC (modern) and Besslers system will be revealed as a part of something bigger..

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  4. Good blog topic, John, and nice to see some attention being paid to the often neglected DT portraits which I have steadfastly maintained over the years contain all the information needed to duplicate one of his wheels. I should start by mentioning that all of the eight levers inside of one of Bessler's one directional wheels are indicated by symbols in the first portrait. I discussed some of these in the last blog. In the first portrait it will be noted that the fingers of Bessler's left hand (not including his thumb) point to the word "Orffyreus" below the portrait. This word contains nine letters and this is Bessler's way of telling us that his left hand in the portrait represents the 9 o'clock lever. The thumb of his left hand touches the book and appears to keep it from sliding off of the skull. Because of the angle of the book, it represents the 10:30 lever and in the portrait Bessler is showing us that the lever approaching the 9 o'clock position of a rotating drum plays an important role in lifting the 10:30 lever into the orientation it has at that location. I don't want to give too much of what I've discovered away at this time except to say that each of the non thumb fingers on Bessler's left hand represents a rope attachment to the 9:00 o'clock lever. These ropes serve to shift and coordinate the motion of the 10:30 lever as it approaches its position. The middle and ring finger appear to be crossing each other because the ropes they represent inside of his wheels appear to cross each other when viewed from the side, but really don't touch because they are in separate planes from each other. There is a reason why his pinky is bent at the angle shown. It too represents a rope, but it is not attached to the same location on the 9 o'clock lever as the other three ropes indicated. Look very closely and you will notice that there is actually an extra finger on his hand! It's located between his pinky and his ring finger and can easily be dismissed as a shadow. That extra finger is Bessler's way of telling us that there are actually two ropes connected to the same location indicated by the pinky. Exactly where these ropes are to be attached to a lever is, incredibly, given by the particular letters below the portrait to which the various fingers point. Much difficult alpha-numeric analysis of the text below the portrait is required to determine where these location points on a lever are located, but the information is there and, I have absolutely no doubt, was intentionally put there by Bessler. It was his way of assuring that the secret would not be lost and I intend to make sure it is not!

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  5. I explained why Bessler would have showed M for Masonry. Anything else is speculations. If there is no significant protocol, then there is no way to receive the message, thus it would have no meaning.

    Like when Ken is suggesting that nine letters in his name, means the 9 o`clock lever. It is pure speculations, because there is no protocol where this can be double and triple checked.

    The protocol was for intellectuals to show M, and Bessler did too. The persons in the portraits or the painters of the historical persons was Masons, so we must assume that Mason, Maurer, Macon or Muratore was defined in the protocol. If M = anything starting with M, in any language (Latin/German etc), then there is no message you send or no message to be received. So it would be pointless to use anything else than what is defined in a unison standard/protocol.

    If M = Mary, then it is defined in the Masonic protocol that M means both Mason AND Mary, and that the Masons carry a secret about Mary. it could well be so, but still it says : "I am a M" (Mason) and what a Mason know, the protocol. (the truth about Mary or not, is automatically included).

    So you see, it really don`t matter what M stands for. It identifies you as a part of a special society or group, and it means that you claim to know what they know,

    At the second highest Masonic level (level 32) you carry and know "the Royal Secret". Bessler knew this and wrote that "We don`t speak of the secret of Kings and Princes" (The Royal secret/ the upper Masonic secret.) This is in line with his hand forming an M, "CR" in the watermark in AP, claiming to know about the Royal Secret, using parts of the Masonic secret methods in his codes etc etc..

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    1. If we want to get a little closer to the M without the use of pure speculations, I propose that the real meaning of M is Minerva, Goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts and magic. This is the secret Masonic ideal. The RC adopted Minerva and included Athena (the equivalent figure), Athena, the Speare-Shaker. Even the Seal of California uses Minerva/Athena, the Speare-Shaker or the Shaker-of-the-Speare. There are much more pure evidence for this, but I will save that for the books.

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    2. Thanks everyone, I'm learning a lot here! I agree with you,Øystein, that the M stands for Mason, but I can't quite accept that Bessler was a Mason, simply because the Freemasons were only a very small entity in 1719 and it only all took off when Desaguliers got involved. However, obviously there must have been some kind of organisation for him to join and I seem to remember that that the Rosicrucian manifestos were first published in Kassel about 100 years earlier - could the gesture originate from them?

      JC

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    3. The RC called themself Masons and was huge in England, France and Germany. From around 1600 until 1717 when they reformed again and became organized free masons. They first reformed early Masonry into RC. Bessler knew their old secrets!

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    4. Long before the Freemasons in 1717

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Fludd

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    5. http://www.rosicrucian-order.com/antiguos_archivos15.html

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    6. Oystein wrote: "Like when Ken is suggesting that nine letters in his name, means the 9 o`clock lever. It is pure speculations, because there is no protocol where this can be double and triple checked."

      It becomes "double and tripled checked" when one realizes that all of a one directional wheel's other eight levers are also symbolically present in the first portrait and then one finds each of them also symbolically represented in the second portrait as well. As far as various esoteric symbols in the portraits are concerned, they are undoubtedly also present, either accidentally or by design. However, once again, I contend that pursuing them is only a distraction that will prevent the serious Bessler wheel reverse engineer from achieving his most important goal: the actual duplication of one of Bessler's wheels. I do not intend to allow myself to be distracted by histories, biographies, subjective translations, or mysticism as most, unfortunately lacking any real progress whatsoever, eventually do. The secret to Bessler's wheels lies in numerical data. Find the numerical data embedded in the portraits and you will find the secret of his wheels.

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    7. Ken. So you don`t think that knowing how secret descriptions of objects and figures was secretly conveyed in published writings the 1600-1700s is useful knowledge for a Bessler researcher?

      And you don\t think that knowing which secret society Bessler was familiar with would help narrow down possible methods used or improved upon by Bessler?

      I claim to know the answer.And I claim that you can`t dismiss the existence of such a system when you don`t know how their systems worked. Simple as that.

      At that time they preferred to convey visual descriptions and words. It is much easier to describe a building by drawing a few lines and putting some words upon it, than to try to write down all the angles, and then describe how they all relate, angles etc.You don`t need measurements if you have the description. In how many MT drawings has Bessler written down measurements when describing a wheel/principle in great detail? Bessler wanted to patent the principle in general, not a special size machine, but his PM principle in any size.

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    8. "You don`t need measurements if you have the description. In how many MT drawings has Bessler written down measurements when describing a wheel/principle in great detail?"

      I already have a good general verbal description of how Bessler's actual wheels worked and MT is loaded with diagrams and verbal descriptions of many unworkable devices. None of these has led to a working wheel. When it comes to Bessler, the internet is awash in talk of codes and secret societies and esoteric knowledge and none of this has led to a working wheel. Yes, there is a general verbal description of his secret mechanism, but the actual mechanism itself can only be constructed with precise parts that must have certain angles and other parameters assigned to them. If one does not have these precise parameters, then he will derive nothing but a pile of unworkable junk from his construction efforts.

      Once again considering Bessler's left hand. As I mentioned above, in the first portrait there is a extra finger attached to his hand which is easily dismissed as a shadow. That extra finger gives important information about how two of the ropes to the levers are attached to the same point relative to the lever's pivot. The two fingers on his left hand, his middle and ring fingers, appear to be crossing, but really do not. This is symbolic of the way two of the ropes attached to the lever appear when viewed from the side of the wheel. This almost crossing of these two fingers is repeated in the left hand shown in the second portrait which holds the dividers against the globe. However, in the second portrait, there are other symbols which stand for the 9 o'clock lever and give important information about how the ropes are attached to it. The fact that Bessler repeats the almost crossed fingers in the second portrait indicates that it describes an important relationship between two of the ropes attached to the levers. These ropes play a critically important role as a lever approaches the 9 o'clock position of the drum and it's time for them to begin shifting the lever approaching the 10:30 position into the orientation it will have at that location. All of this will become much, much clearer when I am finally able to present the final working design I obtain for Bessler's wheels. Hopefully, that day will be soon forthcoming.

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    9. You seem to be unable to grasp my meaning, so I will not go on any further than this message.

      MT describes machines by drawing them, so drawing a machine is the best way to describe a machine, not numbers or measurements! It has nothing to do with the machines in MT working or not. He says they don`t work, but he prefers to draw them. Bessler prefer to draw machines!

      Let`s say that I want to describe a christian cross tilted over. I can draw TWO lines!
      But If you want to describe a tilted cross using you approach, you must communicate:
      L1,L2,L3;L4, A1, A2 A3,A4 + A5 + A6 + a description where every measurement belongs. You see, a great mind would not do it in that way.

      And about discussions on the Internet, about how Besslers hidden work has not led to a working wheel......just like your speculations!

      Could it be that some people have found the key to his hidden method, and don`t want to publish what they have found prematurely on the Internet?

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    10. Yes, MT is filled with drawings of machines. But, the ones that depicted Bessler's actual working wheels were removed and destroyed. No doubt those images would have contained the exact shapes of the levers he used, the mass of the weights and levers, the lengths of the various sets of interconnecting ropes used, and the spring constants of the two springs attached to each lever. There would also have been elaborate notes and component parameters to accompany the illustrations. However, the parameters alone are what really count and those were, I maintain, much earlier incorporated into the two DT portraits. Bessler could not destroy these as he did the MT images / notes because the portrait parameter clues had already been published in DT. He could not retract those clues by buying up all of the copies he had sold over the years. My "speculations" are based upon years of careful analysis of the clues in the Bessler literature after which I realized that everything I needed to know about his wheels was encoded into only two images: the two DT portraits. Practically everything else I now consider a time wasting distraction. Yes, I'm sure that many out there "think" they have found the "key to his hidden method", but all of those keys, imo, will never lead to anything that can be actually be built and tested. What I am now working on will lead to something that can be built and should work. No guarantees, of course. I can understand someone not wanting to publish what they have found "prematurely". I don't want to reveal everything I know until and unless I see my wm2d models actually working as they pass some very stringent tests that I subject them to. However, once (if) they do, then I will make the effort to publish the material. What I have deserves a book length treatment to do it justice and make sure it is presented the way I want it to be. With a "print of demand" book format, the material will never go out of print and will be available to serious pm seekers for decades to come. Eventually, of course, some of the material will show up "for free" on the internet and that's fine with me. But, a book on the subject must come first. Meanwhile, all I can do is drop a few hints about any progress I'm making with my ongoing Bessler research. Whether anyone reading it agrees with me or not is irrelevant. I'm not here to convert anybody. Each of us must follow the direction he thinks will produce real results. I have chosen the direction that I have decided is the best one to head in and I will continue with it until I am convinced that it is not the right direction. So far, after years of work, I am more convinced than ever that it is the right direction and will, hopefully shortly, produce the satisfying solution I and every serious Bessler reverse engineer is looking for: the duplication of one of Bessler's working imbalanced pm wheels.

      By now most of those reading my posts above are wondering about that "extra finger" I keep saying is attached to Bessler's left hand in the first portrait. Don't be surprised if you do not see it immediately. I must have looked at that portrait hundreds of times before I noticed it myself! It's more obvious if you look at the full portrait that John posted above than if you just look at a enlargement of the hand itself. If you do look at an enlargement of the hand itself, you may, depending upon the resolution of the image you are viewing, only see what looks like a shadow cast by his middle finger. Then, with better resolution, you notice that the "shadow" has a finger nail on it!

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    11. That extra middle finger was for you alone, Ken.
      Bessler was giving YOU the middle finger!

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    12. Lol! Well, at least you admit that you are seeing that "auxiliary digit". However, it's not an extra middle finger, but, rather, an extra pinky.

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  6. Well, I came a long way to be here today
    And I left you so long on this avenue
    And here I stand in the strangest land
    Not knowing what to say or do
    As I gaze around at these strangers in town
    I guess the only stranger is me
    And I wonder
    Yes, I wonder....
    ...dziwię się że tak prosta rzecz jak koło :)
    sprawia tyle trudności "uczonym głowom"

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  7. Speaking of masonic symbols, what about the way Bessler wrote the upper case A with a bent crossbar in Maschinen Tractate?
    It always made me think of the masonic symbol 'square and compasses'...

    http://ekladata.com/SUxlnfSjZ2GrZyRqEhe3bkUTMV4.jpg

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    1. Yes you could be right Michel, it's obviously deliberate and intended to convey a message of some sort. It certainly resembles the square and compass, but could it also be a small part of the mechanism.

      JC

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  8. The method actually can be dated as far back as to the ancient Masonic secret http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sator_Square

    The stone masons, Masons, the Rosy Cross and Bessler knew the real secret of these "charms", that was carved in stone by the masons. The ROTAS secret method was used in MT. I have documented all you need about this for publication.

    Somehow it has to do with the square and compass, and somehow it has to do with the protocol of the secret method itself. When understood, it can be applied to text and drawings to create new secret messages and mechanical constructions and emblems. This secret is well known today by the highest ranked masons.

    The secret of these "charms" is the basic for all Masonry!

    It has been kept among masons for about 2000 years (or more), and some of the function dates back to Euclid and Pythagoras. Scholars today use a terrible method of "decoding". They find what they are looking for in "dirty" self-deceptive ways. they draw out the letters they want, in desired direction, so they can make a christian word or two. They make the word PATERNOSTER - PATERNOSTER, and are left with the letters A O and A O. "Of course" the two remaining letters must mean Alpha & Omega. lol. Of course you can find what you like, and interpret what you like when you make up your desired rules. (Kind of what I think Ken is doing)

    It was carved in the stone cathedrals/churches so, it "had to have" a christian meaning. I am amazed at what (crappy) level "top-notch" researchers/scholars work. It should come as no surprise why mysteries like the besslerwheel has been at a "standstill" for so long.


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    1. SATOR... Interesting magic square! Almost a description of a revolving wheel, a 180 degrees rotation leading to the same arrangement...
      http://lepsos.magisoptis.org/Images/SATOR.gif
      And if we look at the meaning of these words :
      TENET
      OPERA
      ROTAS
      We get = "It keeps (tenet) the wheels (rotas) at work (opera)" !

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    2. Yes. And you see the A that Bessler used in MT, and O with the central dot that he sometimes used in his Signature. I not only assume, but I know that the ROTAS secret was what Bessler was referring to. The European elite, Mason, mathematicans, painters, Kings, Princes etc. knew the secret and made a fuzz about knowing it. Many of the middle age and renaissance painters used hidden geometry in their paintings. Even DaVinci and Raphael etc, They prove the principle of the ROTAS stones. NOT Mary! The ordinary people believed it to be a magic charm, with "healing" properties. The elite knew it had special hidden mathematical and geometrical properties following a secret system. Not at all like the "Magic square" theory.

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  9. It is so; yet another invigorating-to-thought topic appears !!

    Of course the Masonic tie-in may be present however, Bessler would have made to-dual-purpose any such signing or representing, I believe. Both? Good chance or, maybe part of one and part t'other, as with a magician, one never really knows.

    His left hand COUNTS TO THREE and will repeat, starting with the index finger - the rhythm of a waltz or mazurka.

    His right points to the acceleration symbol masquerading as the book spine, looking uncomfortably like part of the lazy tongs (or stork's bill or student's forceps, whatever) so beloved by so many. It has THREE segments separated by a space then, a repeat. (Hint-hint-hint.)

    There are aspects of cluing to be seen 'here, there and everywhere' which ONLY an organ builder would / could be likely knowing about. Do not minimize this because without knowledge here, sniffing!!! "All I ever heard was CRITICISM and never a word of praise!" (Paraphrased as remembered.)

    "All the bests!"

    James



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  10. John,
    I've just noticed that the two middle fingers are in a small circle, and the pinkie is in a large circle, do you think this could mean that a smaller weight may weigh twice as much as a larger one ?
    Also the index finger is pointing to some parallel lines.
    Is this a self portrait ?
    Could any codes have been put there by the artist, and not Bessler ?

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    1. I confess I have not looked at the strange markings which lie at the bottom of the portrait, Stevo, but you have drawn my attention to them and I tried looking at the high definition version upside down and they look like letters, but whether they are I do not know.

      The portrait is signed C Fritzsch, sculptor. There was a whole family of them all into printing lithographs, painting, sculpting - its difficult to know which one did the work. But probably not a self-portrait.

      Note that Bessler seems to have copied Fritzsch's signature on the one underneath.

      And the underneath portrait also seems to have the same gesture with his left hand holding the compasses.

      JC

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    2. Stevo, I think that there is significance to the tip of his prominent pinky being at the center of what appears to be a circle, actually two circles. The center of a circle in the case of his wheels would mean either the axle or one of the lever pivots. Bessler's is, imo, giving some important information here, but, like most of his clues, it will only make sense as one continues to study / modify a model wheel that he is working on. But, definitely, he is indicating an "association" between one of the ropes in the wheel and a center of rotation. He had nothing near the axle which a patron of an exhibit could grasp, so it must refer to the lever pivots. Most curious.

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  11. Guys, its seems to me when you look at both hands they really look poorly drawn/ misshaped (unless he had a disfigurement), especially when compared to the high standard of the rest of the image - Did Bessler definitely draw the whole image, or could another artist have drawn the majority of the portrait and Bessler add the hands himself later, relevant to the clues??

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  12. Look at these paintings by the spanish painter Almedina.

    http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.foroxerbar.com/viewtopic.php%3Ft%3D7023&prev=search

    He used the gesture quite a bit. He and his brother were influenced by da vinci.
    There might be a religious significance to the gesture. It might have been a common way to draw hands. Hands are hard to draw. I speak from experience. It's a rabbit hole of research if you have the time!

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    1. Interesting link, doug. My impression is that they look less staged and more accidental than posed. The gesture is mostly shown in single formal portraits and the hands more obviously held in the Marrano gesture.

      Of course as you say its a difficult area of research when even the 'experts' can't come up with a definitive explanation.

      JC

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    2. Hmm...
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Creation_of_Adam#/media/File:Hands_of_God_and_Adam.jpg

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  13. And, not even a comment.

    So-be-it.

    J.

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    1. I read every comment James, but sometimes a suitable response does not spring to mind.

      JC

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  14. Here is an interesting link to a recent piece of code-breaking of an old document. Read all the way to the end for a potential connection with Bessler.

    http://www.wired.com/2012/11/ff-the-manuscript/

    JC

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    1. Unfortunately, Bessler's writings were not encrypted with a simple Caesar cipher... It should have been too easy to break the code!

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  15. I was finally able to get a decent wheel modeling session completed this morning and have made it as far as model #1140. Unfortunately, still no success. The problem is the usual I encounter: the ascending side levers are just not shifting fast enough and unless that happens, the center of mass of the levers and their weights will not stay fixed on the wheel's descending side. Bessler used, I am convinced, some sort of mechanical trick to produce this critical effect and I have just not stumbled across it yet. I will, of course, continue searching because I think I'm very close now.

    I've been thinking about that "auxiliary digit" on Bessler's left hand in the first portrait. Yes, it's a pinky, but I'm starting to think that it is not truly an extra finger. It's there because it's intended to show the motion of his more prominent pinky. I mean that he is trying to show that the pinky that is prominent has been moved from a position up against his ring finger to the position shown at an awkward angle to the ring finger. Why? I can only think of one reason. If his fingers represent ropes attached to the 9 o'clock lever, then he is saying that the rope represented by the pinky is not at the same location as the ones represented by the index, middle, and ring fingers. The rope represented by the pinky is attached to a location that is shifted angularly away from the other ropes. I'm now trying to make some precise measurements on the angle that the pinky is inclined with respect to the other fingers. Hopefully, I'll get some interesting angular data out of this that will give me more information about how he attached the springs to his levers. I believe that they, or at least one of them, is the key to getting that rapid lever shifting on the wheel's ascending side that I need to achieve.

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  16. I found this comment in an article about the telescope in the Galileo Project, "The earliest illustrations of spectacles date from about 1350, and spectacles soon came to be symbols of learning." I think therefore the second portrait is an indicator of Bessler's breadth of knowledge and learning.

    JC

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    1. Yes, those spectacles in the second portrait are very important. Moreover, the various optical axes indicated in the second portrait are also very significant. They all seem to point to very interesting portions of the portrait where much data is encrypted. But, again, the symbols shown will mean little to anyone who is not building continuously and using the clues provided to guide his construction.

      Well, I had a revelation after this morning's modeling session. I now believe that I have the correct basic arrangement of levers and coordinating ropes that Bessler used, but the reason my wheels are not keeping the center of mass of their weights and levers on the descending side of a wheel during rotation is because I still do not have the correct masses for the weights and levers he used. During the next week or so I intend to do much experimentation with varying the masses of my weights and levers to see if that will improve the situation. Although I'm sure that his Merseberg wheel used 4 lb weights, the question remains as to how many he used on each lever. Was it one, two, or more weights? If only I knew the total number of weights that were removed from the wheel during its examination. Also, what was the mass of each lever? Was it the same as one 4 lb weight or more? At this point I am 100% certain I have the correct constant values for the springs he used so I will not be changing that. I will keep them steady and try varying the number of weights and lever mass. Never quit five minutes before you miracle happens...however, my maximum 1200 model limit is rapidly approaching!

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    2. The hole in the second portrait makes me think that Bessler used for himself the portrait of someone else... The first one seems to me more significant, if one is looking for some clues...

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    3. I agree again Michel. I think the second portrait was available and Bessler used it to promote an image. There are scarcely more than half a dozen existing documents still containing the second portrait, and I doubt that any one would have removed the one and not the other, Despite Ken's ability to see clues in the second portrait I myself am unable to see them.

      JC

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    4. John, you seem to be dismissing the second portrait as having any relevancy to Bessler's wheels! All I can say to that is that if you knew what I now know, you would change that opinion in a flash. Actually, there is much more specific numerical data in the second portrait than the first. But, it only becomes meaningful to the reverse engineer as he slowly stumbles along toward the final design that Bessler found and used. When (if) I find that design, I will present the clues along with it and at that time there will be a lot of surprised people out there in pm land. Practically every object shown in the second portrait has symbolic meaning that pertains to the internal mechanics of Bessler's wheels. There is very little in the portrait that is there by "accident".

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  17. I would love to see Ken's face when Bessler's wheel is revealed and he realizes there are NO clues in the portraits!!! Lol

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    1. When are you revealing it ?

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    2. Good question, Anonymous! Actually, I am very confident that no one will ever rediscover Bessler's mechanics unless he manages to successfully decode all of the symbols and numerical data in the DT portraits. It just won't be happening. Of course, someone may come across a design that does work, but chances are it won't the same one Bessler used.

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  18. When is Bessler's wheel coming out .

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    1. I'm working on it everyday now that I've recovered from my respiratory problems and I've got the production details of my next book out of the way. God willing, I might have the solution before the beginning of this summer.

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    2. Well good, because I really needed to know so I can get my electricity supply cancelled with my provider.

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  19. @Anonymous. You might want to check out that link I gave in the last blog concerning the Faraday invention that, supposedly, is supposed to reduce one's electric bill by 80%. It's probably a scam, but, who knows, maybe they actually have something that works. Unfortunately, the customer has to build the device himself, but they claim it's super easy to do. I've heard that one before, though. Even if the secret of Bessler's wheels was reveal tomorrow, it might never be used to generate serious amounts of electrical energy.

    Interesting story. About a week ago a guy showed up at my home representing a solar power company. He said that, because of various government funding (this consisted of certain rebates which they kept), it was now possible for his company to install a fully functional solar energy system that would cut my yearly electrical bill by "up to" 60% and it would not cost me a single penny! Ordinarily, it would cost a homeowner up to about $30,000 to buy such a system and have it installed. Sounded nice until I later got some more details. First, one has to agree to sign a 20 year contract with the solar power company to purchase any electrical power produced by their solar panels (yes, they retain ownership of them even though they are on your roof) for a certain amount which is only, initially, about 10% or so below what your local power company charges you. You are supposed to save money because their rate stays fixed for 20 years while the electric company's rate is supposed to continue to rise). They will occasionally send a technician out to make sure that their solar panels are working properly, etc. The idea of a 20 year contract (which automatically transfers to the next owner if you sell your home before its up) turned me off, but what really turned me off was that they were charging me for something they got for free from the Sun! Yes, it was a little bit cheaper than my electrical power supply company, but they had to pay for fuel to generate it! Anyway, I decided to pass on the deal. Supposedly, there is a simple, do it yourself solar assisted power system one can get for around $1,000 that you can attach to your roof or ground mount. It produces 1.7 kilowatts maximum power and you just plug it into one of your wall outlets and it lets you immediately begin saving up to 30% or more on your yearly electric bill. Best of all, you own the system outright and you don't pay a cent for any of the solar power it is turning into electrical power that you use to supplant what your local power utility company would provide. I think we are going to hear a lot more about such low cost alternatives as the world starts to slowly shift over to solar power.

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  20. I've begun to experiment with varying my weight / lever masses in accordance with what I think the portrait clues are telling me to do and, almost immediately, I got something that looks promising. If it is, then I should see it result in the stability of the weight and lever center of mass as wheel rotation takes place. Meanwhile, for those who still think the second portrait holds no clues, follow the optical axis of the telescope for a nice little surprise!

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  21. If I made a wooden doll and put him or her on the wheel and the doll was keeping the wheel overbalanced, would that be perpetual motion or would it have to be something that is not alive on the wheel ?



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    1. Scientists might not accept it because they would say that the doll is doing it !

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    2. A doll is ALIVE?

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    3. The Orffyrean principle can bring dead things to life so yes the doll would be alive .

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    4. If one made a mechanical "doll" that kept the wheel imbalanced, then it would only be pm if the doll was somehow self moving and did not have to be wound up. When Bessler first introduced his wheels some of the witnesses claimed that they could hear "scratching" noises coming out of their drums. That immediately resulted in Bessler being accused of hiding small animals (like cats, squirrels, or rats) inside the drum which propelled it as they tried to escape by running up one of the drum's inner curving walls. I believe, however, that those sounds were due to wooden levers and radial drum frame pieces rubbing together as the levers were shifting about during wheel rotation. With improved lever design and pivots, these sounds would have been eliminated in his later wheels. While Bessler's wheels were self moving, they did not have the ability to resurrect the dead. The materials in his wheels were no more "alive" than those in a water wheel, windmill, or hurricane.

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  22. Some explanations were brought about Bessler's left hand gesture. But I guess that his right hand has also something to teach... The crossing of the fingers, the different directions of the middle finger, the forefinger, and, maybe, of the thumb... Aren't they clues to show how the ropes are pulling on the levers? And, by the way,Bessler's arms could show the positions of the levers as well... The comparison "arms = levers" seems to me quite natural...

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    1. I mentioned in the last blog that Bessler's right hand in the first portrait represents the 1:30 lever because the extended digit means 1 o'clock and the half of the middle finger sticking out from behind it is half of an hour or 30 minutes. That gives us the time of 1:30. For the serious DT "portraitologists" out there, note where the thumb of his right hand is pointing. It's another important clue. As far as his right hand in the second portrait is concerned, it holds a pair of armless eyeglasses. These were the kind you just stick on your nose and are rarely used today. The eyeglasses are Bessler's way of telling us to carefully study something in the portrait. What could it be? Extend a line from the tip of his right hand's index finger through the tip of his left hand's index finger and down to the lower right side of the portrait. There something very important there that Bessler wants you to decipher. That's the area I'm working on now and it's yielding some valuable information with regard to the mass of his weights and levers. As I've mentioned above, I am now convinced that I did not previously have this information correct and it may be the last obstacle I have to overcome before I finally find the exact mechanism he used. Unfortunately, that corner of the second portrait is one of the more difficult areas to properly analyze.

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  23. As I wander around this wreck of a townWhere people never speak aloudWith its ivory towers and its plastic flowersI wish I was back in 1981.......................................................Too late,too late to cryThe people sayToo late for you,too late for me.... Too late?? But we still alive!!
    Słuchaj John-jeśli nie chcesz czekać kolejne dwa lata-przyjedź do Polski.Pokażę Ci jak zrobił to Bessler.Bez obaw -nie jestem oszustem.I am not a crook

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  24. I found a very interesting ratio of lever end weight mass to lever mass this morning which is based on my latest interpretation of that lower right hand corner of the second DT portrait. It still needs to be thoroughly tested, but it's something that I never tried before and that's encouraging. Nothing more annoying than trying a design you are excited about only to realize that you tried and dismissed it as useless months or even years ago!

    Meanwhile, here's a problem to consider. If you had to make a single metal spring that had an adjustable spring constant value, k, then now would you do it? I ask because the thought occurred to me that, maybe, Bessler used such springs rather than the typical cylindrical helical coil expansion type springs that I've always assumed he used. I've already got an idea of how to do this and, more importantly, I think I've found a symbol for it in one of the two DT portraits! Just curious to see what others might think could be used.

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    1. I've long suspected that he was more likely using leaf springs per MT18 rather than coiled ones, and i've also considered moving a fulcrum along them after bending, to adjust the forces at either end - however sliding the fulcrum this way costs energy. If you can find a way to balance this cost - bend the spring, move the fulcrum for cheap or free, then release... there could be a gain to be had..

      Though i'm sure you've given the matter much thought already, when considering Wolff's description of Bessler pressing down on a spring which then noisily rebounded while replacing the weights in the machine after moving it to new support posts, it should be remembered that this was a bi-directional wheel; and this has certain implications for the spring's purpose:

      - if he was pre-loading some kind of advantage into the mechanism, that would otherwise be obtained or else sustained by its rotation, then it might not have been a directional advantage, unless another spring was also preloaded in the other direction, albeit more quietly without drawing Wolff's attention.

      - one aspect of a spring that i suspect might be most useful is as an energy buffer in time, temporarily decoupling a weight's position from its impetus of translocation.

      - in a similar vein, it might exploit angular inertia to some benefit, in short, 'sagging' due to either inertia or gravity.

      What i'm really getting at is viewing leaf springs as a means of engineering and potentially exploiting temporal asymmetries, rather than as sheer arbiters of mechanical advantage with immediate effect. Noether's theorem tells us that the asymmetry must be temporal in nature, so we should try to think in terms of "when" as well as "where" there may be a door ajar... Hence springs might be of value in adding an additional 'rate of change of force' variable over those immediately resulting from rotation against gravity or inertia, and thus a potentially useful differential to play with..

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    2. "I've long suspected that he was more likely using leaf springs per MT18 rather than coiled ones, and i've also considered moving a fulcrum along them after bending, to adjust the forces at either end..."

      Excellent reply, Vibrator. Yes, what I'm thinking about is similar to what is shown in MT18. But that illustration indicates non linear flat springs. What I'm thinking about would be linear flat springs in the form of a long, thin rectangular strip of hardened steel. The piece would be secured to the drum's frame with some sort of clamp, but there would be an edge or "fret" located in the drum from which the strip would flex as a force was applied to the unsupported end farthest from the edge. By adjusting the length of exposed section of the strip, one could easily adjust the spring constant of this flexing metal strip. I can immediately see several advantages to using such springs rather than helical coil expansion springs. Mainly, they would weigh less, take up less room inside the drum, and Bessler could probably have crafted them himself instead of having to purchase more expensive helical coil springs from a supplier. If one carefully inspects the second DT portrait, he will find a symbol for such flat strip type flexing springs. It's very obvious, but you have to know what you are looking for. Now you do!

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  25. Lol! Check out this "twitchy" animated version of the first DT portrait that someone put on their Bessler site. I wonder what Bessler would have thought of it?

    http://relativity.tripod.com/webonmediacontents/animatedportrait.gif?1344277865890

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  26. I just noticed that today is the 360th anniversary of Bartolomeo Cristofori who was born in 1655 in Padua which was then in the Republic of Venice. Sometime around 1709 he is credited with inventing the hammer mechanism which is still used in modern pianos. Although we do not know that much about him, at least four of his pianos existed in 1711 which was around the time that Bessler first discovered an imbalanced pm mechanism that worked. I can't shake the feeling that Bessler was aware of Christofori's invention and, perhaps, it gave him the idea for the mechanism which he used in his pm wheels. Btw, I vaguely remember reading somewhere that it is believed that Bessler was born sometime in early May of 1680 in or near Zittau, Saxony. If so, then today might also be the 335th anniversary of Bessler's birth!

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  27. I certainly admire you for writing this huge informative content and sharing it among us. The way you change your thoughts into sentences is worth an appreciation. Keep blogging and thank you for the share.
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  28. The oldest painting I've found that includes this gesture is from the 13th century. There are a lot of Virgin Mary "M" hand gesture paintings. It might be that simple.

    It also might just be "M" and have a different meaning for different groups. "M"ary, de "M"edici, Masons. There are piles of de medici portraits from the 16th century doing this. Basically every single person in the Glorious Revolution has a portrait with this hand sign, and many, many portraits of people who were involved in the Dutch East India Company do too. Nobody has a good explanation.

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    1. https://mythmademan.blogspot.com/2018/10/very-early-triad-claw-painting.html

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The True Story of Bessler’s Perpetual Motion Machine - Update

At the end of March we sold our house and moved in with my daughter, son-in-law and granddaughter, expecting to be there for no more than tw...