Saturday, 17 December 2011

6th June 1712 to 6th June 2012 300 years or 109,573 days.

Someone has pointed out that the Gregorian Calendar was adopted in Germany in or around Bessler's time and can we accept the date of the 6th June as applicable today?

As we know, the 6th June 2012, will be the 300th anniversary of Bessler's first exhibition of his so-called Perpetual motion machine in Gera, Germany. Some of Bessler's accounts seem to suggest that he first set the wheel in motion on the 6th June 1712,as in his Apologia Poetica, "For, in 1712, during his stay at Gera in the Voigtland, he hit upon the genuine Prepondium, and so it was that on 6th June of that year he set in motion the first model of his Perpetual or self-moving Mobile, three and a half Leipzig Ell in diameter and four inches in thickness, for the very first time."

Whether that was the date of his first exhibition or the day he actually discovered the secret and set the wheel in motion for the first time doesn't really matter as we only have the date of the 6th June 1712 available. What might be important in determining the correct date for our anniverary is to discover whether this date incorporates the so-called 'New Style' dating or the 'Old style' dating. In England, dates in the Julian calendar that occur before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1752 are termed Old Style. The initials 'O.S.' appearing after a date indicate it is in the Julian calendar. The initials 'N.S.' or the phrase 'Stylo novo', indicate the Gregorian calendar.

The Gregorian calendar,  is the internationally accepted civil calendar.It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582. Although it was slow to be taken up even by Catholic countries, it eventually spread across the world, the last European country to adopt it was Greece in 1923.

The motivation for the Gregorian reform was that the Julian calendar assumes that the time between vernal equinoxes is 365.25 days, when in fact it is presently almost exactly 11 minutes shorter.The error between these values accumulated at the rate of about three days every four centuries. This is the basis for the use of the leap year. Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100; the centurial years that are exactly divisible by 400 are still leap years. For example, the year 1900 was not a leap year; the year 2000 was a leap year.

Because of the Protestant Reformation, however, many Western European countries did not initially follow the Gregorian reform, and maintained their old-style systems. Eventually other countries followed the reform for the sake of consistency. So despite the prudence of Pope Gregory's correction, many Protestant countries, including England, ignored the papal bull. In the Protestant states of Germany it was officially adopted in 1700 and the day following 18 February 1700, became 1st March 1700. So despite the factthat Britain did not adopt the new calendar until 1752, it is clear that we can accept the date of 6th June as according with the new style calendar.

I note that there are 172 days left between today and the 6th June next year -  or 5 months and 20 days.

There have been since 6th June 1712, 299 years, 6 months, and 11 days - or 109,401 days.  (thanks to http://www.convertunits.com/dates/)

JC

44 comments:

  1. Hooray John,nice to know you are there.
    We need a bit of Christmas spirit on the posts.
    I guess everyone is a bit frustrated that the wheel has not already made its appearance.

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  2. I am working on my most daringly sophisticated (but simple)attempt at the wheel,so hold thumbs.

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  3. I've always assumed that Bessler was using the Gregorian calendar and that June 6th, 2012 will, in fact, be THE 300th anniversary of the Gera wheel. However, I do not for a moment think that was actually his first wheel. Most likely he worked with a much smaller protypes years earlier in an effort to find the correct Connectedness Principle and lever design. (I like that word "Prepondium" and will try to use it more frequently in the future...has a nice medieval mechanics sound to it that is appropriate when describing the millenia long search for PM.)

    This calendar stuff can get confusing. From the time of Julius Caesar to Pope Gregory XIII about 1600 years had passed and that minus 11 minute per year error worked out to about 12.2 days. It's not really that much of an error, but farmers in particular would have noticed it when they were getting ready to plant and had to delay doing so because the spring rains seemed be coming later and later in the year. The Pope did the right thing.

    I, however, prefer the calendars that the "primitive" native populations of the Americas used because they were accurate to within seconds per millenium. They tracked the path of the Sun through the sky and the angle its path made with the northern horizon. They knew EXACTLY when a year started and when it was time to plant. No one was publishing calendar charts. The king would simply be notified by his astronomer / priests that the new year had started and he would announce it to the people who probably then held some holiday to celebrate it. That was it...no "leap" years to contend with and the common people could then probably handle the rest of it by themselves. Also, no finicky timepieces to have to maintain...the Sun and the Moon where your clock! You measured the passage of the centuries by the accumulated ages of your god kings.

    But, then again, these people did not use the wheel (a few, however, have been found on toys they made)! Without that, I would say their chance of making a "Prepondium" would be next to zero.


    @ Trevor

    Best of luck with your effort. I do sincerely hope that you have considered introducing interconnecting cords into your designs. I am absolutely convinced that Bessler's wheels used them and that success is not possible without them.

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  4. There was no interconnectedness between pairs of weights.The connectedness is actually between the prime mover and weights to be raised.
    They have to be in synch.

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  5. It is of interest to note that on the 6th June, the 300th anniversary day, Venus will be transiting the Sun.

    I am still working hard to have Jupiter Saturn and Mars rejoined in their battle by then.

    Merry Christmas and A Happy New Year to all my fellow Bessler’s Prepondium enthusiasts

    I really do enjoy following this Blogg

    Thanks

    John Worton

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  6. I think I made a mistake in my last comment when I said farmers, by using the Julian calendar for 1600 years, would have noticed the spring rains coming about 12 days later than they should have. Since the Julian calendar does not take into the account that the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox is actually 11 minutes LESS than 365.25 days, that means the Julian calendar's dates, after 1600 years, would have been about 12 days AHEAD of where they should have been. Since nature does not worry about human calendar systems, that would have made the rains appear to be coming about 12 days EARLIER than they should have.

    By advancing the world's date by 12 days, Pope Gregory XIII managed to make the arrival of the rains agree again with the dates on the calendar. Actually, when you think about it, aside from skipping 12 days ahead back there in the 16th century and NOT using three of the centurial leap years during every 400 years (which corrects for that 11 minute per year discrepancy between nature and the Julian calendar), we are STILL actually using the Julian calendar! We've just modified it a bit and renamed it the "Gregorian" calendar in honor of the man who finally got the major kinks out of it.

    Hmmm...imagine there is some sort of global apocalypse after the discovery of the secret of Bessler's wheels. With no energy generating technology available except for Bessler's wheels, might a future generation of survivors begin counting time from, not the birth of Christ, but rather from the birth of Bessler? If so, then we are now living in the year 332 AO or the year 332 Anno Orffyreanum!

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  7. Does your blog need a countdown clock John?

    http://www.7is7.com/otto/countdclock.html

    This one looks free.
    Hohoho!

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  8. And this time 294 years ago, the wheel was turning in the sealed room. The time between the first wheel and the duration test was 5 years 5 months. Coincidence?

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  9. No technoguy never could the birth of the wheel ever replace the advent of Christ and his finnished work on the cross.Don't even compare it.
    There is no greater victory.

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  10. Thanks for interesting comments, guys. I like the idea of a countdown clock, Doug. Any ideas for the title? All I can think of at the moment is 'the 300th anniversary of Bessler's wheel' or 'the 300th anniversary of the discovery of the solution to Bessler's wheel' ( too many words) or should I throw in 'perpetual motion' or 'gravity-drive wheel' etc etc. The one I choose will get an acknowledgement somewhere on the clock.

    JC

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  11. "Genuine Prepondium Tricentennial (Clock)"
    Or "Bessler's G.P.T.(C)." ?
    It wouldn't need "clock" since the clock would be there.

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  12. Or just Prepondium Tricentennial

    Bessler Prepondium Tricentennial

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  13. Yes, I agree with what is being suggested, I like

    Bessler’s Prepondium Tricentennial Countdown

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  14. Hhhmmmm - I like the look of it, but I'm not sure it conveys the message clearly enough.

    'Preponderance', which is the English derivative, 'means a superiority in weight, power, importance, or strength', which does not exactly accord with what Bessler, Wolff and the others meant. When used in conjection with weight-driven wheel it's fine, but on its own it seems to me that it doesn't quite match.

    Let me think about it over night, and if anyone else has some ideas feel free to post them - and thanks for the input so far.

    JC

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  15. Spot on technoguy. Unlike the ficitious and fanciful fantasy work of christianity that only serves to line the churches pockets with gold, a Bessler's Wheel would give unequivical proof that the dragon of death can be defeated. That there just might be a way within nature to turn away from the path of decay.
    Anon 506

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  16. @ JC

    I like Doug's "Prepondium Tricentennial" suggestion. It's short and uses my new favorite Latin word. It also accurately suggests that Bessler's wheels were OB wheels and that, if a failure resistant one had been hidden away in a cave somewhere 300 years ago, it might still be turning today!

    Of course, a visitor seeing this clock might wonder exactly what is supposed to happen when it finally hits zero (which I assume would happen at 1200 hrs standard local Gera, Germany time since we don't know exactly what time of the day the wheel was first seen by someone other than Bessler). Aside from this clock giving the time to celebrate the tricentennial (what form is that supposed to take?!), a visitor might be expecting something more "grand" to happen at 0 hr like the secret of the wheels' internal mechanics finally being revealed in all of its details. If that doesn't happen, then after the clock passes zero and begins accumulating time on the + side there might be considerable disappointment.

    Well, hopefully, some "lone wolf" inventor with the actual solution will come out of the shadows before that happens because I'd hate to see our tricentennial countdown clock be immediately replaced with a quadricentennial countdown clock!


    @ Anon 506

    I don't like to put down religions too much since many people do truly derive comfort from them. Like anything manmade, they have their flaws as their bloody histories will attest. But, they also have done many positive things such a feeding the hungry, treating the sick, etc. Generally, I'm for any belief system that makes people more tolerant and forgiving of each other and prompts them, either individually or through their governments, to try to help others when they can.

    In comparing Bessler with Jesus, I am amazed at the parallels:

    -Both are born in humble circumstances

    -Both are carpenters

    -Both are VERY religious and claim to be directly inspired by God

    -Both deliver a message to humanity that creates doubt and hostility

    -Both collect a small group of believers

    -Both do things considered physically impossible or "miraculous"

    -Both die tragic deaths

    -Both promise a future reappeance of some sort (Jesus a "Second Coming" and Bessler that those studying his work would eventually uncover the secret of PM)


    Yes, the number of coincidences is amazing, IMO.

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  17. And both are probably frauds. You forgot about that one.
    506

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  18. By the way, Jesus NEVER promised a second coming. You wont find that anywhere in the bible. The resurrection was his second coming in the fable.

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  19. Techno wrote;
    Generally, I'm for any belief system that makes people more tolerant and forgiving of each other and prompts them, either individually or through their governments, to try to help others when they can.


    Anon 506 writes; and truly an evolved and intellectually superior person can do this without the need of a false belief system proping them up and acting as their crutch.

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  20. I'd "love" to have a debate about religion, since it's almost Christmas, but it's irrelevant. If we look long enough, we can find synchronicity between everything. It's mystifying, and frightening at once.

    I was trying for one of bessler's own words for a clock.
    Orffyre's Perpetuum Mobile Tricentennial?
    There are some classical music pieces named perpetuum mobile that would be fun to put one on here to go along with the clock, there is a list on wikipedia under the perpetuum mobile entry.

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  21. I did not mean to start a whole religious debate but know this,..Don't put your trust in man or machine,they cannot save you.Only the Christ can save you and give you perpetual or eternal life.
    The Bessler perpetual motion wheel will however go a long way into making life more comfortable by raising our standard of living.

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  22. Okay, guys, I'm starting to get my "Anons" confused here again. Obviously, one is pro-religion and one is anti-religion. Ordinarily, I don't get involved in religous discussions, but since Bessler was a VERY religious individual and this is the holiday season, maybe such a discussion would not be totally inappropriate (@ JC, If you don't like the tone of this, then I will have no problem with you editing / deleting my comments as you see fit). Let me briefly respond to both:

    @ pro religion Anon:

    I would have to disagree that Jesus' resurrection constituted his "Second Coming". His alleged resurrection was an event that was only made known to a handful of followers at the time. He, however, earlier described his future Second Coming as a cataclysmic event that would be witnessed worldwide and that would result in the resurrection of all of the dead, the bestowing of immortality to them and the those then still alive, and the removal of evil from the world. Sadly, none of that occurred even though it was suggested that it would take place before the last apostle died off (that happened around 95 AD).

    If one could go back in time and ask the original apostles if Jesus' resurrection constituted the Second Coming, they would have disagreed. Indeed, much of the NT after the gospels is devoted to the early church's preparation, AFTER their messiah's alleged resurrection and ascension into heaven, for an expected FUTURE return of their messiah to Earth.

    While the failure of Jesus' main prophecy to take place when it was expected (or, indeed, any time in the last 19 centuries!) is certainly a disappointment, I would still revere the man for his moral teachings. Not that they were necessarily new at the time he made them, but he risked and lost his life in the process of promoting them. He should certainly be revered for that and his life and teachings studied, IMO.


    @ anti-religious Anon:

    Well, since religions are manmade we should not be too surprised that they can fall victim to the same problems that plague any other human institution: envy greed, fear, lust for power, etc. Whenever humans are involved in anything these things can pop up like toxic mushrooms from time to time. A responsible institution will always seek to police itself, correct problems, and try to remain faithful to its stated mission. It will not force anybody to believe its mission or support it. Rather, it will strive to gain support by the actual good it does in the world.

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  23. PART II:

    I have personally known people who got into very desperate straits in life. In many cases, the ONLY real help they got was from a local charitable religious group. And in each case, they were not required to join the religious group or denied assistance if they were agnostics or atheists. Indeed, I have seen several atheists suddenly begin to "reconsider" their lack of belief in God as they got older and death began to approach. One of them told me that "There are NO agnostics or atheists on deathbeds"!

    I think that alot of atheists use what they claim is the obvious irrationality of various religions to justify their own disbelief in a real God out there "somewhere". But, I suspect that this is just to cover up the real issue. Sometime in the past they really needed something badly (or imagined they did), prayed for it, and their prayers were not answered. As a result they are now actually ANGRY with the God they claim not to believe in for not delivering the miracle they needed when they needed it and in the exact form they needed it. Yes, that can hurt and evoke all sorts of feelings of abadonment and doubt within a person regardless of his age.

    But, maybe God does not see things from the same perspective that humans do. Maybe He, She, or It works at a far higher level and intentionally lets "bad" things happen to "good" people because this serves a "greater" purpose that we mere humans can not presently comprehend.

    While I don't have faith in any particular religion, I am not yet convinced that God does not exist. Remember that "lack of evidence is not necessarily evidence of lack". Someday we may have satisfying answers to all of the issues raised by the concept of a Supreme Cosmic Intelligence. Right now, however, I don't see any harm in believing in a God, especially if it makes one reach out in a positive way to his fellow human beings.

    Season's greetings, everyone. Want to feel good this season? Try contacting someone you haven't spoken to in a long while. Just say you were thinking about them and wanted to wish them happy holidays. To make it more difficult, pick someone you've had a "bad" experience with the last time you interacted with them. I think that you will probably have about a 90% chance of patching things up with them and will feel alot better about them and the rest of life afterwards. Yes, I know it will be difficult to pick up that phone or write that email. There will be a little voice in the back of your head telling you that since THEY caused the problem, let THEM make the first move. Well, find the strength to overcome that voice and make the first move. You will be glad you did.

    I once read a story of two sisters who got into an arguement at a party when they were in their twenties. As a result, they did not talk to each other for 30 YEARS! Finally, at a party they wound up in the same room and began talking. Turned out neither could remember what that arguement had been about and started crying and hugging each other when the realized something so totally stupid had kept them from having the close relationship sisters are supposed to have. Don't let this kind of nonsense happen to you...make that call or send that email...you will be glad you did!

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  24. TECHno wrote;

    " Generally, I'm for any belief system that makes people more tolerant and forgiving of each other and prompts them, either individually or through their governments, to try to help others when they can."

    Anon writes;
    And where exactly did HE say this? It's not the book of revelation if that's what you are thinking. That book was written by a John and it's still highly debatable what it really means since it quite plainly says the work is sealed. I'll tell you this though, it's not what you think it is. It's not for the eyes of someone like you. It's not for your understanding. Furthermore, their are many apocalypse tales told thoughout different cultures. They all have one thinbg in common, and end of the world era followed by a rebirth, all with their own version of a lord coming to set up dominion. That's one common point. The other common point is, all of those tales began with the Zoroastrian philosophy.

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  25. For my post above, I quoted the wrong part of techno, it should have been this;
    " He, however, earlier described his future Second Coming as a cataclysmic event that would be witnessed worldwide and that would result in the resurrection of all of the dead"

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  26. @ pro religion Anon:

    See the 24th chapter of Matthew. It's all pretty much there and, allegedly, in Jesus' own words. He is describing what his apostles will experience immediately before the Second Coming. The timing of the events that are described was not something scheduled for thousands of years in the future or was supposed to be open ended as some apologists for religion would have use believe. They were specific to the time of Jesus' generation and the lives of his original apostles (see verse 34 for example). And, of course, they did not happen.

    We must keep in mind that there are many different religions on Earth and dozens of "holy" books. They all basically disagree with each other and claim only they have the "real" truth. At least, however, they all do acknowledge that there are one or more superior beings in the cosmos and that it is generally a good idea to do what is pleasing to them. Of course, deciding exactly what is "pleasing" to them can often lead to much conflict between humans.

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  27. Tech no guy
    There is no religious Anon. There is only Anon. We control the horizontal. We control the vertical.
    I forgot about about matthew 24. It matters not, it's all bullsh*t. All designed to keep the masses under the influence. As that chapter says, no one knows the time or day ( so you better be good little boys and girls, forever and ever and don't try to take the place of the superman of the great church ) and listen to the system of the warlords.

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  28. Speak for yourself! I'm very religious.

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  29. No you'r not. Remember?
    Anon 90210 ninja.

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  30. Oh your right...I'm not.

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  31. @ pro- and anti-religion Anons:

    In a free society we are all free to determine what we will believe in and what we will not. Some will dismiss a particular religion's literature and tenets as irrational nonsense. Others will see the same material and revere it as ultimate truth worthy of basing their conduct and lives upon.

    I thank God that I live in a society in which I am free to choose what I will and will not believe in and to openly proclaim it without fear of persecution. MANY people in this world still do not have such freedom. Thus, I believe in freedom of religion and, perhaps more importantly, freedom FROM religion. What counts with me is not so much what a particular religion teaches, but what it DOES with that teaching. Does it attempt to help its fellow humans in need? Does it do so without demanding belief from them? Does it treat other religions with respect or does it claim only it has THE truth? Does it automatically view those "outside" of itself with suspicion or consider them to be "enemies"? These are all important issues that anyone contemplating getting involved with ANY religious group should consider.

    Yes, Jesus does allegedly say with regard to his Second Coming in Matthew 24 that "No one knows the time and day". In fact, he even states that HE did not know it! But, that does not mean his prophecy was open ended. It was supposed to happen during the lives of the apostles in the FIRST century AD.

    The fact that it did not happen does not really bother me, however, because I try to keep my focus on his (and others) moral teachings. I think if more people did, we would have had alot less bloodshed in the last two millenia.

    I am reminded of a comment that the Indian leader Gandi once made. He was unfamiliar with Christianity and decided to read the NT in order to see what it was all about. After he finished it, he remarked "Wonderful religion...too bad no one is practicing it." Maybe he hit the proverbial nail on the head with that observation!

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  32. Do you know what I think? If all people practised criticle thinking we'd all be saved.

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  33. Too true,..If you guys are looking for the perfect man,you won't find it.Thats what Grace is all about.
    The only one that was perfect was Jesus.All you have to do is believe why he came,to qualify for PM and live for ever.
    It's as simple as that!
    Now guys can we get back to why we are here,..The Wheel!

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  34. OK I decided to go with Doug's suggestion, so thank you Doug. I've put an acknowledgement underneath the clock. I may change the countdown at some point but this will do for now, so thanks to all.

    JC

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  35. Good work John,..I think this clock is really going to accelerate the drive to reach the goal in time.

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  36. Let's make every day count chaps.

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  37. The clock looks good! I appreciate the acknowledgement, John. I'll raise a glass this holiday to 'a solution by the zero hour'.

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  38. Uh oh! I can see the cushion shaped rectangle at the top of the pages, but its just black! I don't see any numbers. Must be a problem with my browswer. I'll try viewing it later on a different system.

    Hmmm...countdowns. Reminds me of one of those sci-fi movies from the '50's where all the scientists have to work together to solve some problem in order to save humanity or the Earth. They setup a giant sign that tells them how many days are left for them to complete the work before global calamity happens. Of course, they do finally solve the problem and, yet again, science / scientists prove to be the saviors of mankind.

    Too bad REAL life is not like a sci-fi movie from the '50's! LOL!

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  39. Sorry to hear that technoguy. Sometimes it takes a few seconds to completely download. It works for me in internet explorer, google chrome and firefox.

    JC

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  40. @ JC

    I see it now with IE 7.0. Yes, it's a somewhat tardy download with a telephone modem. Looks good, but you need to also capitalize the word "tricentennial".

    Right to the second, too! But WHOSE time? Is that soon coming zero day / zero hr / zero minute / zero second for YOUR local time or for the local time over in Gera, Germany? I'll assume that it hits all zeroes at either midnight or noon at one of those locations.

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  41. GREAT name for that clock, and great idea too, Doug. Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to everybody!

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  42. I just noticed when you hover your mouse over the clock it scrolls to the date.
    Nice touch!

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  43. Great idea, great clock and great name for it!

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  44. Searching for the Best Dating Website? Join to find your perfect date.

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