Friday, 29 May 2020

Bessler’s Use of the Orffyreus Codes.

I will begin to post Bessler’s clues and my interpretation of them, in my weekly blogs.  As each new blog appears, I will copy and post my previous one in the ‘pages’ which can be accessed at the top of the panel on the right side of the blog. This will provide easy access to each blog-page and none of the ‘pages‘ will have comments, although the blogs themselves will still allow comments, which will save time for anyone who wishes to read the earlier blogs. I’ll add a copyright notice to each of the ones in ‘pages’.

What follows is my take on why Johann Bessler decided to embed numerous clues in his publications, even though no one was supposed to decipher them before the inventor had received payment for his device

When Bessler set out to discover how to design and build a Perpetual Motion (PM) machine, he had read that such a device would be ‘worth a ton of gold’.  But during the long years of research he  also spent time in considering how to actually obtain a large amount of money for the secret of his machine, should he be successful - sound familiar?

His first and over-riding concern was to keep the secret of his wheel’s construction secure, until he had won his ‘ton of gold’.  Once he had constructed his working wheel he approached a number of wealthy persons of high repute, but he would not share his secret for fear of being cheated, which fact prevented him from obtaining documented verification of his claim. Eventually, as we know, he submitted to the demands of Karl, the Landgrave of Hesse and permitted him access to the interior of the wheel, upon the swearing of an oath. Karl verified the machine and Bessler’s claim.

I believe that for many months both before and after his first successful wheel, Bessler planned a publication extolling the virtues of his machine and later a more impressive account of his journey to success.  This was designed to provide a printed back up of his machine’s design which he could call upon as evidence of the priority of his claim, should the need arise, but he embedded the information within a number of clues.

I think he had already decided on placing coded information about the wheel in his books, long before he decided to allow Karl to see how his wheel worked. This would explain why he put so much time and effort into developing and inserting his coded information, even though he had had his claim validated by the highest authority - before Karl verified his claim, his only guarantee that he could prove his priority lay within the coded information.  He seems to have considered the possibility that he might never sell his machine and thus die without ever receiving acknowledgement for his achievement, so it had an additional purpose although not one he would have expected to happen.

He had become familiar with codes during his time in Prague, and had learned much about several different ciphers.  If he needed to pique someone’s interest about the codes in case of illness, death, imprisonment or some other incapacitating event,  he devised a straightforward clue to initiate the curiosity of a knowledgeable person with the right credentials who would wish to dig deeper, and so he adopted the pseudonym, Orffyreus.

This he created from his name, Bessler, using a well-known mono-alphabetic substitution cipher called atbash,  originally used to encrypt the Hebrew alphabet.  The Caesar shift cipher was similar as is the modern algorithm known as ROT13.  The pseudonym was further refined by the addition of two extra forenames, Johann Ernst, in addition to his given name, Elias.  To the curious eye with some knowledge of the atbash cipher, the three initial letters of his forenames, J.E.E., might spark the idea that here was another cipher but this time it was an alphanumeric one.

Initially one can see that E is the fifth letter and J the tenth. I’m aware of the argument that in Bessler’s day the German alphabet consisted of 24 letters rather than 26, but in our case it doesn't affect the findings of the atbash cipher. JEE becomes WRR, using atbash, which does not seem useful, however we know of another cipher in which letters can represent Roman numerals. The letter W if seen as two ‘V’s, can also represent 5 and 5.  But R is either the seventeenth or eighteenth letter of the alphabet, which doesn’t matter because Bessler decided that the atbash equivalent of E was R, which makes R the 18th letter, so he used the 26 letter alphabet.  The reason for this, as we shall discover is that all these numbers are key angles within the pentagram, and 18 is the base number, but more of that later.  The letter ‘R’ also has another role to play, hence it’s inclusion in the Bessler’s logo as seen above.

So Bessler showed his knowledge of several ciphers and implied that he would be using each of them, plus some others which have not yet been deciphered, in his publications.

Bessler created numerous chronograms which were popular at the time.  One chose certain meaningful quotations from the bible, which contained suitable letters within the text that could be read as Roman numerals.  These when added together gave a relevant date. They were often written above the entrance to a building, to provide an establishment date. This technique was also used by the inventor.


The presence of ciphers was meant to inspire someone to search and find and then decipher each clue. But they could not be made too simple in case someone deciphered them too soon, before the inventor got his money. I have no documentary evidence of this but it was said that Bessler requested and was granted permission for a family vault to be built in his garden at Bad Karlshafen. It seems reasonable to assume that this vault might provide pointers to the hidden information and offer some additional help in deciphering them, to aid those who came after his death, looking for clues about his machine. Unfortunately his vault has never been found. But fear not for I have identified enough clues and deciphered enough of them to reconstruct Bessler’s wheel!

I have posted pointers over the years to the places I looked and found and deciphered clues, and I’ll discuss the specific clues which led me to the solution, with illustrations in the future blogs and this will hopefully spur me on finish my construction, which I have to do in order to prove two things; firstly that this wheel is of the same design as a Bessler’s and secondly the clues I’ve found and my interpretation of them is correct.  As I’ve said before, if the wheel fails, I will continue to post my clues because I believe they are correct.

On that point, I have often said that the mechanism is complex and difficult to build, but on the other hand Karl said it was so simple a carpenter's apprentice could build one if he was given time to study it.  It is difficult to build, at least for me.  If you can see a finished product with all parts in their correct place and all the measurements accessible to you, then yes it could be accomplished more easily.  But working from a huge variety of clues which take time to interpret and then you have to build with a certain amount of trial and error, it is not easy.  The concept is easy to understand and perhaps this was the initial action that Bessler found which encouraged him to keep going.  But getting that action without other actions cancelling out any advantage is a little more difficult.  So even when you think you know the secret you’re only half way there.

Please note that there are no suggestions of links with Rosicrucians, FreeMasons, Numerology, Hermeticism,  Kabbalah, or any other cults, religious factions or other weirdness, they are not required to solve the clues.

‘til next time then.


Friday, 22 May 2020

After a PoP Demonstration, Peer Review and Acceptance.

I think that when Bessler’s wheel actually works and is developed into what ever is proven to be its best evolution, it will confirm the opinion of many of us, that it will herald the future of a world with greatly reduced pollution; very cheap electrical supply; all-electric cars, trains, electric boats and ships.  Not sure if electric aircraft would benefit, but I understand there are some efforts being made in that direction.

Conversely, the cessation or severe reduction of the manufacture of all fossil fuel burning vehicles, boats, aircraft and generators etc, may eventually happen, and not necessarily because of Bessler’s wheel, but because pollution, global warming, rising sea levels - not to mention the increasing cost of pumping oil - demands it. But what a welcoming opportunity for the entrance on to the world stage for Bessler’s wheel.

I know that many here doubt the effectiveness of Bessler’s wheel as an electricity generator, but it seems to me that, in the simplest terms, a rotating device, powered only by the effect of gravity on weights, which can rotate another connected device, no matter how weakly, is capable of being scaled upwards to the point where it can be an effective replacement for all electricity generators. It may appear large or cumbersome, but compared to the many solar panels covering much of the roofs of houses in the U.K. it will seem invisible and far more effective!   But I do not believe it will prove to be as weak as most people predict.

What about all the alternatives means of producing electricity presently in use if the above scenario should happen?  Windmills, tidal generators and nuclear energy, can all be proscribed.  But there are others that I think may still have an important role to play.  Hydroelectric energy, geothermal energy and solar power seem likely to have long term use, but all of the above will benefit from the ongoing development of cheaper and more effective batteries or other electrical storage devices in which to store excess power, or as a backup utility.  Biomass is regarded as renewable energy but still produces CO2 when burned, but there are other ways of extracting energy from it, some of which can be directly converted into electrical energy via electrochemical oxidation reduction reaction (redox).

But above all these, in my opinion, Bessler’s wheel triumphs for its simplicity, cleanliness,  low cost, low technology and therefore reliability.


Friday, 15 May 2020

Johann Bessler - Misunderstood, Reviled, but a Genius.

The search for the answer to a perpetual motion machine has been going on for hundreds of years if not thousands, and yet we seem to be no nearer a solution now then anyone else has been, apart from Johann Bessler’s machine.  How come he succeeded when no one else, as far as we know, even got near?

According to the man himself, he had two things things in his favour; firstly his extensive practical knowledge in the various trades commonly practised in his day; and secondly his freedom to work on the project all day, every day for as long as it took.

While I accept his expertise and probably his skillset in numerous trades was far in advance of the majority of people today, I’m not sure that that would give him much of an advantage over today’s wealth of information garnered from the internet. But there was one advantage he had over the rest of us and that was that each trade he learned required a hands-on approach, there was no way of learning from books or in a classroom, and I believe this gave him a unique practical knowledge not available to anyone else.  He claimed expertise in each trade but I doubt that each of his mentors would have assessed his work as exemplary, although it could have been adequate, and he could have made good use of the knowledge gained.

Clearly Bessler had a quick and clear understanding of each of the crafts he learned and this stood him in good stead. But to return to the  second advantage he claimed, that of being able to work exclusively on his project, he wasn’t married then so he only had to feed and house himself, but he had to acquire raw materials with which to build his mechanisms, which he would have to pay for, just as we do today. He still had to find ways to earn enough for all his needs and  he had a reputation for having good medical knowledge, another skill he learned during his wandering years, and which  he was called upon occasionally to practice, thus earning himself some income. He also claimed to be able to repair watches, probably mainly pocket and fob watches. With his experience in many areas of life, he had the means to earn enough for his purposes.

So when it comes down to it, his chief advantage seems to have been his experience in physically working in these trades.  But later he decided to adopt the trade of organ maker, learning from his younger brother, Gottfried.  This was a complicated and quite technical device but it used numerous items which Bessler found useful and adapted for his wheel. He did build some organs but it was only  as a means to an end, and gave him knowledge not necessarily accessible elsewhere.

By reading the above you might think I have trivialised his skills as nothing more than those of a journeyman, but far from it.  I believe he had a huge breadth of knowledge specific to his needs and the skills to apply them, but above all he had the intellectual ability to work out how to design and build a working model of his wheel.  Following numerous trial and error experiments he gradually found his way to the correct mechanical arrangement.

His interests were not limited by his desire to build a perpetual motion machine.  As we all know he died while constructing a windmill, but as was typical of Bessler he introduced the idea of a windmill with a vertical axle, allowing it to take advantage of the wind from any direction.  He designed a carillon and wrote the music for it.  He devised a submarine which could be moored under water with an air supply from one of his gravity wheels.  He offered to design and build a leather tanning factory.   He offered to build a fountain driven by his gravity wheel for “the amusement of gentlefolk”.  There is so much more but these examples demonstrate the breadth and depth of his knowledge.

And when you see the true ingenuity of his coding system you will have no doubt that this man was no simple peasant but a misunderstood genius

PS - Don’t forget my granddaughter Amy needs your help, if you feel like donating to her crowdfunding site, your kindness will be gratefully received.  My thanks go out to those generous people who have already donated.  She is improving and our most fervent wish is that she can walk out of the clinic under her own steam, so-to-speak, hopefully before the end of this year.

Look at this

And this


Thursday, 7 May 2020

Is there a Guiding Hand?

Looking at the bigger picture one could almost conclude that a guiding hand might be taking a role in the human activities on this planet.  I’m not religious, not even slightly, but sometimes I think I can detect some kind of action which could be seen to be helping or guiding us when we err too much?  It’s not so much a caring guide, more a pragmatic one.

Let us begin with Johann Bessler, who made no secret of his strong faith.  I have always believed that he invented his machine about 300 years too early.  He produced his perpetual motion machine at the very beginning of the steam age and the competition was too great for him to flourish and he died an unhappy and disrespected man.  The age of the petrol engine followed the steam age and each ran in parallel with the development of the electric motor.  The steam engine was the biggest polluter of the planet since humans first emerged,  but it wasn’t so effective as the petrol engine, which developed from nothing to what we see today in about 130 years.  The steam engine took about 300 years to reach the same level of efficiency.  Yet despite the much quicker development time the petrol engine has caused more pollution than the steam engine did and over a much shorter time.

But without these engines and their subsequent development we would not have been able to take  full advantage of the power of electricity and all the extraordinary things we can use it for. So we could assume that without the steam and petrol engines, we could not have reached this point in the evolution of electricity generation.  Therefore I conclude that Bessler’s wheel was born too early, but given the strength of scepticism which surrounds any discussion about Bessler’s wheel these days and his claims for it, perhaps a device like his simply could not be invented today.  So he had to do it then and leave us the strong evidence that he succeeded in building something which is  still thoroughly rejected by the mainstream.  But which I’m certain will be replicated this year, because he left sufficient clues for a reconstruction of his wheel.

But I had already perceived the faint glimmering of a ghostly guiding hand after I became fully aware of the pollution spreading across the face of planet earth, causing global warming. There have been increasing calls for a reduction in greenhouse gases and they become ever more strident.  As the  level of pollution rises amid the increasing concerns about the oil industry, demands for investment in new ways of generating electricity become ever louder, but the results so far have been dismal, ineffective, costly and still result ultimately in more pollution.

It is self-evident that the ocean levels are rising due to the global warming.  Ice sheets and glaciers are melting. The demands for action has become desperate.  Reduction in the output of pollution-creating industries is planned but it is still too slow and still not treated as urgent.  Worldwide public demonstrations against the burning of all forms of fossil fuel are taking place.

But what can be done to mitigate the effects of pollution?  Some people are calling for the cessation of  all aircraft flights! Others demand that we stop driving our cars! Ban the burning of fossil fuels!

To achieve all that inter shortest possible time, there is only one thing that could solve the problem.....inflict a global pandemic on the entire human race. Isolate every member of every nation.  Lockdown everything!  Would this have the desired effect of reducing pollution at a stroke, bring global warming to a gradual to stop?   Certainly that would work, but for how long? Unbelievable and unpleasant as it undoubtedly is, to see it from this view point, you only have to look at the photographs of polluted cities before and after the lockdown to see the impressive reduction in pollution and the improvement in the air quality.  This won’t make the problem of pollution go away, but it is to be hoped that the onslaught of deaths due to the pandemic and the effect on the survivors, will galvanise those who have the power to do something, will take the necessary action required to maintain the advantages demonstrated by them.

Finally, finding the solution to  Bessler’s wheel and developing it into a machine that can  provide enough electricity to run any kind of home with clean free energy will go a long way towards resolving the continuation of the global warming crisis.

It almost seems as though every development, everything that has happened, has been leading to this point, are we being guided to adopt a new life style which can allow humans to continue to live and flourish on this planet - instead of drowning the estimated number of 250,000,000 people, who live on land expected to be submerged by rising sea levels, and which puts the predicted worst case current death rates due to Covid-19 at 250,000 to 300,000 deaths into perspective.  Fewer deaths to save humanity?

Is it coincidence or has someone or something intervened to steer us in the right direction?  Are they  addressing a problem in a purely pragmatic way, considering that the end justifies the means?  My problem is that as an agnostic I believe that it is impossible to know of such a being, but some people might, however, suspect it’s presence by its actions.  Thinking along such lines would require the dismissal of coincidence, which might seems an unlikely option considering how powerfully accurate the timing has had to be, to deal with the consequences of pollution.  Or is this just a natural process which offers solutions and potential opportunities for humanity to grab hold of and use to its advantage?  I think the latter is more likely, but there are some who can see the hand of God.


Saturday, 2 May 2020 and B.O.R.G.

As per a recent request I have added the draft copy of the B.O.R.G. Constitution to pages in the right panel.  It does not make very interesting reading but I’ll leave it there for a few days.


I have occasionally mentioned my past membership of a small group of researchers who got together on-line to try to brainstorm a solution to Bessler’s wheel.  This was way back in 1999, it was called B.O.R.G. which stood Bessler Orffyreus Research Group, (we were aware of the other Borgs from Star Trek, no relation!). After a few months we returned to our solitary research, but one member comments from time to time on BW forum plus myself of course, and another is mikeyned, with whom I correspond from time to time. His web site is at  I’ve lost touch with the other two who were involved but I think they moved away from this field of research.

I mention Mikey’s web site because it contains some interesting research into Bessler’s books and drawings and I think it’s well worth a visit to see what he has written. I’m always looking for a new angle on attracting newcomers to this field of research, or hoping that new information will spark a new idea, so take a look at Mikeyned’s web site, it could lead ultimately  to a solution.

The idea of trying to brain storm a solution seemed potentially a good one, but so many ideas and divers reactions led to complex interactions with few designs actually attracting more than a short amount of discussion and study before being dismissed.  I know that sometimes it has been suggested on the BW forum that members should work together to achieve our aim, but I know from my own experience most people have their own ideas and are not so receptive to alternative ones.

I think the way things are working is probably as good as it can be.  Some BW forum members are sharing their designs, some others responding to them, others keeping to their own ideas and continuing to work on their own.  This blog, while it attracts plenty of comments has been visited by  many who pause to read and the move on without commenting, 1448158, since it began, but recently it has attracted a lot more, over 11000 visitors this month!  Of course it could be down to Covid-19! I think that the news about Bessler is spreading at last and I hope this will increase the chances of a breakthrough.

Be assured that when a successful design is achieved it will be shared everywhere, and I’m not just talking about mine! I simply can’t see how anyone who has proof and the evidence of a working Bessler wheel could possibly keep it to himself, or even want to, after so many years of attempting to solve this puzzle.

Good luck to all of you, as I’ve said several times, I would rather anyone found the answer, than no one.

BTW, don’t forget to watch my amazing video at   My video about Bessler’s Codes


Just an update about my gorgeous granddaughter Amy who is now more than 200 miles away instead of 100.  She was moved out of STEPS clinic to make way for Covid-19 patients.  She was making good progress but I’m sure she will adapt to the new place.  She says they talk a different language up there and have different names for things but she is determined to keep improving.  None of her family can visit due to the Covid-19 virus, which we were prepared to do, even planning to stay the night before the lockdown began.

When she first arrived at STEPS she was fed through a tube in her nose, and suffered other indignities which are too unpleasant to mention.  She could not sit up without support, neither could she hold her head up or move it unaided.  She had no feeling in her legs and was unable to stand.  She suffered intense pain in her left arm and hand.  Her left hand and wrist had contorted to such an extent she will have to have surgery eventually to try to get some use out of it.

Yet now she is able to eat normally, the powerful opiates she used to have are no longer needed, the pain in her left arm has almost gone, she can hold and move her head herself, she can sit up unaided, she can manually operate her wheel chair by using both hands although one is still bent double. She is learning to stand up with help.  All this has taken a year of intense physiotherapy, I just hope this new place can maintain her progress.

One last reminder - two years ago she was a much loved primary school teacher.  She had danced as an amateur at the local dance school all her life.  All these recent  problems came about when she suffered an episode of adult croup or whooping cough, possibly caught from one of her pupils, and was sent to hospital.  For reasons which are unclear it was difficult to insert a cannula and after they had managed to attach it, it subsequently became infected.  The rest followed, Amy’s health moved steadily downhill to the point when she arrived at STEPS, but now the only way is up.  A massive thank you to all who have donated, we hope to reach our target of £40,000 in the next few weeks.


Saturday, 25 April 2020

Maschinen Tractate 137, and Some Important Numbers?

The subject of this blog might seem a bit unusual but perhaps it might spark some new ideas?

Some of you may be aware of the work I've published on  Three of the pages refer to the dodecagram on MT 137, which precedes the 'Toys' page, MT 138. 139. 140 and 141. I wrote that Johann David Heinichen, 1683-1729, a German musician, introduced the concept known as the ‘circles of fifths’ in 1711 (he called it Quintenzirkel). I suggested that MT 137 being similar to his quintenzirkel was designed to point to the circle of fifths, thus being another pointer to the number 5.

That has all been discussed before, here. This time my interest was directed to the MT number itself, written clearly on the bottom of the page - 137. I know Bessler was fascinated by the history and the relationship between numbers and letters and their hidden meanings and of course all the popular codes of the era, and it seemed to me that he had included the number quite deliberately, even if it was somewhat roughly executed. We know he had to add the Toys page in a hurry due to a possible impending arrest, and replaced the existing pages which gave the secret of the wheel. My guess is that he also added the MT 137 at the same time. As it had no mechanical resonance I think it was a deliberate inclusion along with in the Toys page.

MT 137, is the only illustration in the MT which doesn’t appear to show any mechanisms. One reason for this was, as I suggested above, to provide a hint towards the circle of fifths, but as Bessler usually included two or even three pieces of information in each of his clues I felt there could be something additional, that was invisible to me. A Google search of the number 137 for anything connected to his work produced the following information, but I’m still not sure if it’s relevant. Hopefully you will find it interesting, and in particular my final piece. Most of what follows is way over my head, but I include it because of the perceived importance of this number, both now and historically.

So, in the world of physics, it has been suggested that the number 137 could lie at the heart of a grand unified theory, relating theories of electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and gravity.

There is something called the ‘fine structure constant’, a physical constant with no dimension is approximately 1/137, and it’s reciprocal was said to be the integer 137, although later work suggested it was closer to 137.036.

Richard Feynman wrote the following about the number 137.

‘It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and Pauli famously quipped, “When I die my first question to the Devil will be: What is the meaning of the fine structure constant?” Unfortunately Pauli died without accomplishing his goal in the Red Cross Hospital of Zurich in Room 137—and he was aware of that synchronistic irony before he died. Theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it. It’s one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the ‘hand of God’ wrote that number, and ‘we don’t know how He pushed his pencil.’

In the Hebrew Kabbalah, the word has a Gematria value of 137, symbolically, this word indicates the threshold between the physical dimension and the utterly spiritual dimension. In other words, at the boundary line of the physical world, the number 137 emerges. The wisdom of Kabbalah is to find correspondences between the mundane and spiritual levels of reality.

Here are some quotes from some web sites.

In his Nobel lecture delivered in Stockholm on 13 December 1946, Pauli expressed his goal was to establish a theory “which will determine the value of the fine-structure constant and will thus explain the atomistic structure of electricity, which is such an essential quality of all atomic sources of electric fields actually occurring in nature."

Cosmologist Robert L. Oldershaw argues that “137 is the relationship of the strength of the unit electromagnetic interaction compared with the strength of the unit gravitational interaction. That sounds pretty fundamental to me.”’

In the Bohr atomic model, the innermost electron of a hypothetical atom with atomic number 137 would be orbiting just below the speed of light, and the next heaviest element would be impossible because its electron would have to exceed c. Atoms close to the theoretical limit of 137 are unstable and not found in the universe’.

The following is skimmed and abbreviated from my forthcoming book, which will be published later this year.

I was intrigued by the possibility that the number 137 was recognised to have special properties in Bessler’s time. There are websites devoted to such things as the properties of the three main pyramids which allude to the number 137, plus the Kabbalah, numerology, Freemasons, etc.

But I discovered that Bessler was hinting at the relationship between 137 and the golden angle or the golden mean, well known to the ancient Egyptians and the Greeks who called it phi, after the Greek sculptor Phideas. Phi, the golden ratio, is equal to 1.618, plus an unending succession of numbers. Plato discussed the subject at length in his Timaeus and of course there are the Leonardo Fibonacci series of numbers, and the laws of nature also dependant on the gold mean!

In geometry, the golden angle is the smaller of the two angles created by dividing the circumference of a circle according to the golden ratio, thus creating two arcs so that the ratio of the length of the smaller arc to the length of the larger is the same as the ration of the larger arc to the full circumference of the circle.

This provides two radii with angles of two particular degrees. The golden angle is 137.508. I suspect that using the number 137 for his dodecagram seemed like a good idea to the inventor, but he couldn’t name it MT 137.5, that would be too obvious. Bessler used the golden ratio routinely in his drawings and it was more commonly integrated in works of art than it is today. A search for the subject on the BW forum throws up many links.

Why did he add this page? Much of the work I have done on finding and interpreting his coded work was useful, but not a first sight and it was hard to explain when out of context. 

Bessler’s clues, if solved in isolation, get the confirmation of their validity from solving other related clues. This clue of the number MT 137 is an example of this. I have found, subsequent to the investigation of this clue, confirmatory examples of at least two precisely executed angles of 137.5 within his drawings. The connections I pointed out in my web site also a showed a heptagram within the dodecagram, which, as well as the pentagram, includes numerous examples of the golden mean or ratio.

But there is a further mystery - or am I becoming even more paranoid than before?

The Toys page is numbered at the bottom as 138, 139, 140, and 141, but why? The page is labelled with A, B, C, D and E, and these five letters were obviously on the page before he added his four handwritten numbers. So four page numbers for five labelled itemss? It has been suggested that the Toys page replaces four pages which were burnt or buried, but why did he need to remind himself by numbering the page in this way?  He could just dig up the ink blocks he buried when he needed them. Maybe he decide to add MT 137 at the last minute so he could use the number 137 with the do-decagram and add a pointer to the golden angle, there rather than on the Toys page? But if he then added the other four numbers to the Toys page why not end with 142 to cover the five items on the page, instead of number 141? Perhaps he needed to end with 141 and he had already used 137. He had a record of including more numbers than necessary to reach a significant total.

141 is the product of two prime numbers 3 and 47. Coincidentally (maybe) there are 141 bible references in chapter 55, within the 55 verses of his Apologia Poetica.  The number 47 brings to mind Eulclid's 47th proposition but which can exhibit the properties of the golden ratio with some additional extras.  It describes the 345 right triangle with its accompanying squares. That particular figure was adopted by the Freemasons a while ago, so perhaps he is demonstrating his knowledge of the craft. Apparently the Euclid’s 47th proposition is discussed in the Freemason 33rd degree, and a Masonic publication, Anderson’s “constitutions”, was published in 1723, it mentions that “ the greater Pythagoras provided the author of the 47th proposition of Euclid’s first book“

In 1723 Bessler was well established at Kassel, a centre of Freemasonry, and I’m sure he was familiar with the “Constitutions”.  The history and use of the 345 right angle is described in detail and a number of its additional features described which I was unaware of.  One of the angles produced in the additional features is 108 degrees which looks uninteresting but 360 divided by 108 equals 3.3333, the 33rd degree? 108 is the largest angle in the pentagram, all the angles in pentagram are multiples of 18, the smallest angle in the pentagram 18, 36, 54, 72, 90 and 108, so I’m sure that there is a golden ratio in there. The Kepler triangle also exhibits the golden ratio.

I prefer to think that although Bessler was using the language of Alchemy he was actually disguising mechanical processes. It makes more sense than him going off at a tangent and talking about things of a magical nature.

All comments welcome.


Saturday, 18 April 2020

The Search for the Secret of Perpetual Motion Continues.

The search for the solution to perpetual motion has occupied the mind of man since the earliest times. Two questions; why has it been such a magnet for us?  Why hasn’t anyone produced a working model? Johann Bessler said it was because no one had ever been able to devote as much time, every day, to searching for the solution as he had.  He also said that he had acquired more experience in different trades than anyone else, before or since which gave him a unique advantage.  Both the claims ring true, because we all have to work to earn money these days and time is therefore restricted, and I doubt if there are many people actively researching this subject who have as much ‘hands-on’ experience as Bessler had.

That is the answer to the second question, but why have we spent what must amount to trillions of hours over the centuries, looking for this pot of gold?  Leaving aside answers to do with the more mundane pursuits such as irrigation, grinding flour and corn, draining mines etc, there seems to be something at the back of our minds that informs us that such a device, driven by or enabled by gravity, could turn continuously and do work and do something really clever. It’s something we all know instinctively.  Perhaps it’s in our DNA.

How do female pigeons know that they need to build a nest to lay their eggs in?  How do male pigeons know that they must supply hundreds of twigs for the female to construct a nest?  We are told it’s instinct, but instinct is defined as an ‘innate, typically fixed pattern of behaviour in animals in response to certain stimuli’.  Wikipedia says instinct is genetically hard-wired behaviour that enhance our ability to cope with vital environmental contingencies, so it is in their DNA. Our innate fear of snakes is an example.  A fear of snakes is understandable, but what stimulus made the male pigeons gather twigs for their lady friends?

So if it’s in our genes, but who or what put it there? Experience and survival of the fittest would account for the fear of snakes, I suppose, but why do so many people instinctively ‘know’ that Bessler’s wheel was genuine and knew it hundreds of years before he was born that such a device was possible?

Despite being told, taught, informed, harangued that it is impossible, a very significant part of the population believe it might be possible, but unfortunately the majority of those accept the word of the experts and either dismiss the idea or give up too soon.  It is down to we optimistic researchers who, ever hopeful, persist in  seeing the glass half full instead of half empty.

We are irrepressibly optimistic, overconfident and always have an alternative design we have to try. My own optimism often gets the better of me, but I still think it is a trait that we need to maintain and nurture. 

I’m sure we have each endured the scornful reaction that many people have to our belief in Bessler and we have learned to keep quiet and not discuss it with anyone outside our circle. But when the secret is revealed and has become accepted, maybe some of those who dismissed us as nuts, loonies etc, will revise their opinions of us and congratulate us on our amazing and perceptive thinking and determination.


Sunday, 12 April 2020

Update April 2020

I have received a little criticism from time to time, about my apparent inability to produce a working Bessler wheel, plus my book describing the details of the decoded clues with a full set of explanatory diagrams and a video of the wheel.   It’s true that I haven’t produced any of the above, but I’m not going to share my deciphered clues before I’m ready.  The wheel will be ready when it’s finished as will the book. 

I have been so excited about the many clues I’ve solved so far, that I have been tempted, many times, to begin posting them on my blog, but my other half has a wise head and she tells me to be patient, don’t give anything away until it’s all finished and ready.  She said I’d only regret it if I began to share things now and I’d come to wish I hadn’t, later.

My work on the wheel is progressing slowly and I’m also completing the book, at the same time, and I keep going back to improve what I’ve written or drawn already.  The garage is warm enough now so in between working on the book, I’m in there every day, working on the wheel.  One of the reasons for the snail-like progress is the other commitments which engage my time.  I cannot, neither do I wish, to relinquish any of them, but I’m doing my best to cover all exigencies.  I don’t regret the delay in what should be a relatively quick project, but I do offer my humble apologies for keeping everyone waiting, (those of you who haven’t given up on me!)

I have been accused of the same things that I accused Behrendt of,  imagining clues and finding clues which don’t exist.  Fair enough, I have said many times that I know the secret and that I’m going to share all my discoveries, and yet nothing has been published yet.  But it will all be in the public domain as soon as I can arrange it.  However frustrating it may be for you, I can assure you it is just  as bad for me.  I’m brimming with excitement to reveal all,  but I know there is a risk that it will be ignored or dismissed unless I can show a working Bessler’s wheel at the same time, along with a video and a sim.  That will be the proof I need to publish and anything short of that makes a successful outcome less positive.

My personal opinion is that as soon as anyone sees the design, they will ‘get it’ and become convinced that it’s correct, even without a working wheel or a sim, but having seen the reactions to other ‘proofs’, I just want to make sure that my work is accepted as quickly as possible and people around the world seize the initiative and develop a fully functioning electricity generator along with other utilities that may become evident in time.  That requires the evidence of a proof of principle wheel.

Finally, I remain convinced that a patent is completely unnecessary and will have the effect of slowing the development of a practical gravity-enabled wheel.

Finally, finally! Many of you may recall that my granddaughter Amy, is suffering from PTSD and FND and has a crowdfunding page at

I thought I’d add a picture of the two of us to show how lovely she is....

She is a primary school teacher, a keen amateur dancer, and full of energy.  Since the onset of these diseases she had lost the ability to walk, sit up, hold her head up and had to be fed through a tube in her nose.  Thanks to STEPS rehab clinic she has recovered control of her head, she can sit up, eat normally and some of the side effects of these illnesses have significantly diminished.

Unfortunately, STEPS has been persuaded to take a number of corona-19 virus patients and all the non-urgent cases have been shipped out to other clinics.  Amy has ended up 200 miles away from home instead of 100 miles, but none of us can visit anyway because of the lockdown.  Amy is still making progress and has got some limited control in her legs and has made an attempt to stand, which was halfway successful.

Our major concern is what happens next and any donation to her crowdfunding site would still be gratefully received, and can I say a big thank you to the kind people who have already donated.


Wednesday, 8 April 2020

Bessler’s Wheel vs Water Wheel.

This is somewhat speculative, but an argument against the oft-stated opinion that Bessler’s wheel will  have little real power.

There have been several attempts to estimate the potential power in Bessler’s wheel, but given the paucity of information about the internal workings, we are limited to using the dimensions, speed and a single estimate of the relative mass of one weight.  Even the size of the chest of stones proves little, as we don’t know the limit that could be lifted.  There is another approach which might give some useful idea of the inherent potential in Bessler’s wheel.

There is a restaurant about a mile from here which straddles the river Avon,  called the Saxon mill, records indicate it was a working mill back in the twelfth century.  The first reference to a waterwheel goes back to 4000 BCE and there are the remains of several Roman water mills throughout England.  According to the Doomsday book in 1086 there were no less than 5624 water mills in England.

My idea was to compare the size and speed of the old water wheels used in the mills and also take a look at the current thinking (sorry, cheap pun!) about modern commercial and diy water mills and try to get assessments of power output from wheels of comparable size and speed to  the Merseburg wheel. I’m sure I don’t need to go into the different types of waterwheel, there is plenty about them on google.  There are several varieties each with their advantages. There is also much about efficiency of modern turbines, but that does not concern us just now.

Much of what follows is gleaned from reputable google websites.

Most of the Roman water wheels were vertical and measured between 5 and 10 feet in diameter, not too different from the size of the Merseburg wheel.  In 1764 the first water-powered cotton mill in the world was constructed in Lancashire.  Below is a picture of an early textile mill, from 1770.   Note the huge size of the wheel, and the gearing used.

The principle challenge of the waterwheel is the low rotational speed, which means that significant gearing up is required to match generator speeds.  The same has been suggested as the problem with Bessler’s wheel. However high power gear units are widely available and have improved the economics of modern waterwheel power schemes up to 50kW and more. A 35kW generator is enough to power everything in a home. Water wheels are cumbersome and far less efficient than hydro turbines but the reason for this discussion is to try to get an idea of the kW output of a Merseburg size wheel.

The Merseburg wheel was about eleven feet in diameter and one foot thick and turned at 40-50 rpm. But the old water wheels turned much more slowly, 7 to 10 rpm was common.  The Lacey wheel on the Isle of Man is the largest working water wheel in the world. It is 72.5 feet in diameter and six feet wide.  It turns at just 3 rpm.  It has an estimated 200 horsepower which is about 150 kW. So back to the Merseburg wheel.

The speed and volume of water and height of its fall affects the power output of a waterwheel, but most can work from minimal amounts of each.

Eleven feet by one foot, turning at 40 rpm. Circumference is say, 35 feet. The rim is moving at 1400 feet per minute or almost 16 mph.  16mph is a strong breeze and if you were cycling at 16mph, you would feel it quite strongly.  How much power might be available from the Merseburg wheel?  No idea, actually because for one we don’t know how heavy the weights were, nor how many there were, but there is one thing we do know - the speed of the rim, 16 mph, and more when it turned 50 rpm, nearly 20 mph.

It reminds me of the feeling I had when I read the maid’s account of how she helped turn the Kassel wheel, I couldn’t prove she was lying, but I knew she was, and it’s the same here, the Merseburg had plenty of power and rotated at far higher speeds than any waterwheel.  Add high gearing and you could drive an electricity generator.  Bessler said his wheel could be scaled up providing more power, obviously this must be true, it’s a common solution to limited output in many machines.

I know, this is not scientific or practical or objective, but sometimes subjective feelings are all you have.

One more thing; there has been so much talk about Bessler’s use of pulleys to increase the lifting power of the wheel.  I have suggested that the slower Kassel wheel was deliberately designed to provide a slower demonstration, obviating the need for pulleys.  In the Merseburg demonstration, with an rpm of 40 or 50, each lift would have been over quickly.  We don’t have the height of the lift but it was described as ‘several Klafter’, each of which was six feet.  Several Klafter could be up to about 50 feet,  although I suspect less, which would use 100 turns of the wheel, and last less than two minutes.  Including the pulleys, extended the length of the demonstration.

The demonstrations took some organising and were observed by several people at a time.  Removing weights, translating the wheel, replacing the weights, making sure that as many people as possible could view the lifting process through the windows, plus of course, Bessler’s own brand of showmanship, would take time.  A lift of less than two minutes might even be missed by some and would be received with less interest and requests for several repeats.  The use of pulleys would help the demonstration.

NB. This, in my opinion, justifies the design of the Kassel wheel, which had two requirements.  Firstly it was needed to run slower for the demonstration, and secondly it had to be able to accomplish the lengthy endurance test. Bessler would have been aware of any wear on the Merseburg wheel bearings and made adjustments to the design of the Kassel wheel to slow it’s rotational speed without reducing its power.  If this assumption is not right, how else do you explain the slower Kassel wheel?  Don’t forget that Bessler stated that he could make wheels large or small with varying power output.

In my opinion Bessler’s wheel will prove to have more than enough power to provide useful amounts of electricity.


Wednesday, 1 April 2020

Save Time and Money, Don’t Patent.

There has always been a question which haunts the back of the mind of the majority of seekers of a solution to Bessler’s wheel, and it is this - how do I earn some kind of financial reward if I succeed in designing and building a working version of Bessler’s wheel?

I know that some think it’s somehow immoral to seek to earn money for their work but it’s no different to earning money from any discovery.  Many researchers believe that a patent is the way to go, but I urge you to think again.  Patents are time-consuming, expensive and they don’t cover the whole planet.  They require policing to try to control patent infringements and these also have time and money costs.  So how do you get any return on all those years of trial and error?

My personal preferences is to make a reasonably good video of the wheel explaining how it works.  Post it on YouTube and select monetise it.  You need at least 10000 hits before you start to earn some money, but a video of this nature could swiftly get into millions of views. I won’t go into how you monetise a video, there is plenty of advice out there, but it is the way to go.  It takes a little effort to accomplish, but it’s much easier than getting a patent and it costs you nothing.

The result is that you have given away the secret to the world at large and made it impossible for anyone else to patent the design.  Someone will always find a way to improve a design and apply for a patent on the improvement, but that can happen even if you have already got the patent on your design.

Forget the patent route just finish a working proof of principle wheel then do the video.  Tell the world that you have significant potential improvement to the problem of climate change, pollution from fossil fuel burning and an alternative means of generating cheap clean electricity

Same instructions to self!


Friday, 27 March 2020

Facts not Fiction, will Show the Way to Bessler’s wheel.

It seems to me that people are getting sidetracked into looking for clues in places which are not genuinely repositories for clues actually left by Johann Bessler.  The so-called clues identified by K. Behrendt in his book are not clues left by Bessler with the intention of guiding us to his design.  I say this with the utmost certainty because I have identified and interpreted enough clues to build his machine and it bears no similarity to the one that Behrendt claims to have discovered.

There so many errors and false assumptions littering the heavy prose which forms an enormous chunk of the book, that my heart quails at the very thought of identifying them.  In addition the author sketches ideas which become facts which supply sturdy support for his earlier erroneous assumptions.  His conclusions are so flimsy, based as they are on non-evidence that, one could drive a coach and horses through them and utterly destroy them

It may appear that I’m being unfair to Behrendt, but I’m actually trying to defend the truth and Behrendt’s truth is a mere shadow of the reality.  He has published books before on the paranormal, secrets of UFO technology, and numerous articles on time machines, extraterrestrials, the resurrection of the dead, the underworld, haunted houses, the oceanic depths.  The list seems endless, but I hope you get a picture of Mr Behrendt’s interests.  He is not a recorder of truths so much a purveyor of myth and imagination.

I am concerned at the number of people who are advancing Behrendt’s theories without concerning themselves with their origin.  You can have alternative theories and hypotheses, but not alternative facts. Facts that are successfully disputed cease to be facts, while theories that are successfully disputed continue to be theories.

It is for this reason that I continue to record my dislike and concern that people will assume that Behrendt writes with the tacit approval of those, like myself, who have spent most of my spare time throughout some sixty years in publishing only facts which are supported by documentary evidence.  I do not approve of anything which he has written in his book, ostensibly the truth about Bessler's wheel.  Even though some of it comes from my own research which he has by and large failed to acknowledge other than in the the most desultory fashion, but more, far more comes from his own vivid imagination, and you can form an accurate opinion on that by considering the other subjects he waxes enthusiastically about.  None of them are real, just a boy’s  imagination run riot.


Saturday, 21 March 2020

Bessler’s Wheel and the Orffyreus Code.

Apologies for putting this up again only I seem to have caught a cold, not  covivid-19 hopefully, and I’m not up to writing a blog.    I’ll return to the blog ASAP.       JC

The Legend of Johann Bessler’s Perpetual Motion Machine.

 The Truth Behind the Legend of Bessler’s Wheel and the Orffyrean Code

On 6th June, 1712, in Germany, Johann Bessler (also known by his pseudonym, Orffyreus) announced that after many years of failure, he had succeeded in designing and building a perpetual motion machine.  For more than fourteen years he exhibited his machine and allowed people to thoroughly examine it.  Following advice from the famous scientist, Gottfried Leibniz, he devised a number of demonstrations and tests designed to prove the validity of his machine without giving away the secret of its design.

Karl the Landgrave of Hesse permitted Bessler to live, work and exhibit his machine at the prince's castle of Weissenstein.  Karl was a man of unimpeachable reputation and he insisted on being allowed to verify the inventor's claims before he allowed Bessler to take up residence  This the inventor reluctantly agreed to and once he had examined the machine to his own satisfaction Karl authorised the  publication of his approval of the machine.  For several years Bessler was visited by numerous people of varying status, scientists, ministers and royalty as well as hundreds of  local inhabitants.  Several official examinations were carried out and each time the examiners concluded that the inventor's claims were genuine.

Over the years Karl’s health began to deteriorate and his sons decided that it was time for the inventor to leave the castle and he was given five years salary and accommodation in the nearby town of Karlshaven. Despite the strong circumstantial evidence that his machine was genuine, Bessler failed to secure a sale and after more than thirty years he died in poverty.  His death came after he fell from a windmill he had been commissioned to build.  The windmill was an interesting design using a vertical axle which allowed it to benefit from winds from any directions.  

He had asked for a huge sum of money for the secret of his perpetual motion machine, £20,000 which was an amount only affordable by kings and princes, and it’s no coincidence that this sum matched that being offered by the British Government as a reward for the invention of a way to establish a ships longitudinal position  at sea.  Bessler clearly believed his invention was equal in value.  Many people were interested in Bessler’s wheel, but none were prepared to agree to the terms of the deal. Bessler required that he be given the money and the buyer take the machine without viewing the internal workings.  Those who sought to purchase the wheel, for that was the form the machine took, insisted that they see the secret mechanism before they parted with the money. Bessler feared that once the design was known the buyers could simply walk away knowing how to build his machine and he would get nothing for his trouble.  He said that a bag of money should be put on the table and the buyer could take the wheel there and then.  He swore that if he was found cheating he should be beheaded, a not unlikely result if he was found to be a fraud and deceiving his ruler.

I became curious about the legend of Bessler’s Wheel, while still in my teens, and have spent most of my life researching the life of Johann Bessler (I’m now 74).  I obtained copies of all his books and had them translated into English and self-published them, in the hope that either myself or someone else might solve the secret and present it to the world in this time of pollution, global warming and increasingly limited energy resources.
This problem of acceptance by his potential buyers was anticipated by Bessler and he took extraordinary measures to ensure that his secret was safe, but he encoded all the information needed to reconstruct the machine in a small number of books that he published. He implied that he was prepared to die without selling the secret and that he believed that post humus acknowledgement was preferable to being robbed of his secret while he yet lived.

It has recently become clear that Bessler had a huge knowledge of the history of codes and adopted several completely different ones to disguise information within his publications.  I have made considerable advances in deciphering his codes and I am cautiously optimistic that I have the complete design.

Johann Bessler published three books, and digital copies of these with English translations may be obtained from the links to the right of this blog.  In addition there is a copy of his unpublished document containing some 141 drawings, his account of the search for perpetual motion - and my own account of Bessler’s life is also available from the links.  It is called "Perpetual Motion; An Ancient Mystery Solved?"  

Bessler's three published books are entitled "Grundlicher Bericht", "Apologia Poetica" and "Das Triumphirende...". I have called Bessler's collection of 141 drawings his Maschinen Tractate, but it was originally found in the form of a number of loosely collected drawings of perpetual motion designs. Many of these have handwritten notes attached and I have published the best English translation of them that I was able to get. Bessler never published these drawings but clearly intended to do so at some 

I and thousands of others around the world believe that Johann Bessler’s claim to have designed and built a perpetual motion machine, or a continuously rotating device enabled purely by gravity, was genuine.  The circumstantial evidence is compelling.  This device if reconstructed now, could potentially provide cheap clean electricity, and by reducing the need for fossil fuels, provide a huge step forward in reducing carbon emissions in a very short time.

For some ideas about Bessler’s code why not visit my web sites at      and                and

For more information go to


Sunday, 15 March 2020

Johann Bessler’s GRAVITY Wheel.

There are still a lot of people who accept the view that gravity could not be the sole provider of energy to Bessler’s wheel so here’s what I believe.  First, I am satisfied that Bessler’s wheel was genuine.

Sometimes it is helpful to look again at the evidence.  I am fully aware that his wheel could not have been a perpetual motion machine because they are impossible. However this presumption is dependant on there being no requirement for an external energy source.  I used the word ‘presumption’ because that is how it was suggested perpetual motion machines were supposed to work; no external energy source.  This is also known as a closed system’.

It doesn’t take genius to see that this is impossible, no energy in = no energy out, therefore  no work done.  If we accept that Bessler’s wheel worked then we should consider what sources of energy were available, and to help us we can see what the inventor said about it.  He told us that the weights themselves provided the perpetual motion.  This can only mean that his machine benefited from the presence of gravity.

Of course we’ve all been taught that gravity is not and cannot be a source of energy. But when I read that I always think to myself, but not saying it out loud, yes not directly, but water wheels and hydroelectric stations benefit from streams of water falling from higher ground to lower ground to drive electricity generators, for example. They benefit from the presence of gravity.  Bessler’s wheel benefited from the presence of gravity too.

It’s also a well-known fact that historically, virtually every would-be inventor of a pm machine ignored the suggestion that gravity could not be an energy source - that you can’t just tap into gravity and use its energy.   Not just uneducated people, but highly respected men such as Leonardo da Vinci, Robert Boyle and the famous Indian mathematician, Bhaskara II, all designed mechanisms which they believed might work, even Sir Isaac Newton left a perpetual motion sketch.  They weren’t put off by the idea that gravity could not be used, maybe it was never considered.

All forms of energy relate to motion, so when something is in motion it has kinetic energy, or sometimes it can have potential energy, or stored energy.  Energy is often defined as the capacity to do work. Gravitational energy can do work, it’s routinely measured to assess the amount of work it has done in a particular instance, so the only reason that I can see why it is taught that gravity cannot be a source of energy is because no one has ever devised a mechanical method which allows weights to fall and continuously be raised again while rotating a wheel, apart from Bessler.  It has been extensively and relentlessly argued that it is impossible, but Bessler’s evidence suggests that this is incorrect.

We can extract energy from windmills, but only if the air is moving.  No wind, then no energy.  Waterwheels remain stationary in still water,  You cannot extract energy from gravity if gravity is not moving anything, but you can if gravity moves something and makes it fall.

So you cannot tap gravity as source of energy directly, but you can if you have a medium in between gravity and the wheel, and in Bessler’s wheel it must be the weights.  Gravity makes the weights fall, causing the wheel to turn. A mechanism which can allow itself to fall, under the influence of gravity, and still manage to reset the fallen weights must be possible, and it must be Bessler’s solution, because the solution requires it to be so.

I’ve been writing the same argument for at least ten years, see my other web sites, and still few get it or accept it and yet it is pure logic.  Bessler got it and so can we.


Saturday, 7 March 2020

Johann Bessler - Random Documents, 1.

Throughout the many years I’ve been researching the legend of Bessler’s wheel I have accumulated many documents which I was unable include in my biography about him. The first draft of the book was way too long even without the extra stuff, so I’ll try to post some of it here from time to time. Each one is  not necessarily connected with any other but some may be of interest.  Most are  illegible so unless they include drawings I’ll leave them out.

After doing this blog for eleven years and a month it’s sometimes difficult to know what to write so there may be the occasional random content - like this one!

1)  I’ve read many books about perpetual motion and I was pleased to discover that one author whose book is called ‘Perpetual Motion; A Continuing Quest’, is commenting here occasionally. We corresponded many years ago and he kindly sent me a copy of his book, way back in 2003.  So welcome Richard A. Ford.(RAF)

2)  Another thing that has cropped up recently is the question of where did Bessler's death originate? Some thought that I was the source but on March 20th 1992, several years before I began to write my history of Bessler's wheel, a German local newspaper published details about a project to spend money on refurbishing Bessler's ruined windmill, from which they reported he had fallen to his death.  They planned to make it into a tourist attraction.

The article appeared in the 'Neue Westfalische, Nr. 68, Freitas, 20, Mars 1992'.  Although I think the page in question could be obtained online even now, (was unable to see that particular page even though I found the newspaper in question). Below I have included a very bad photocopy which was sent to me at the time and above it is a photo I took of the windmill from a similar position, so that you can confirm that it is the same building.

The headline in English reads 'Millions for Fairy tale and Legendary Mill'.  The article is very long so  have only quoted from the relevant text, 'Here originated a two story, half-timbered building with massive stone walls.  The roof and interior came to nothing as the builder, Orffyreus fell to his death from the walls.'

In addition to the above, Rupert Gould, whose 1944 book 'Oddities' first informed about Johann Bessler's wheel also described Bessler's fall to his death. He wrote 'Bessler died in 1745, aged sixty-five, when he fell to his death from a four and a half story windmill he was constructing in F├╝rstenberg'.

'Rupert T. Gould, "Orffyreus's Wheel," in Oddities: A Book of Unexplained Facts, revised ed., (London: Geoffrey Bles, 1944), pp. 89-116. Reprinted by Kessinger Pub Co., 2003, ISBN 978-0-7661-3620-5.' 

The windmill restoration was budgeted for and the local authority planned to translate my book into German and place it in the tourist office at F├╝rstenberg.  Unfortunately the restoration and the translation of my book never happened due to “budgetary pressures”.  You can see more photos of the old windmill at my web site at

3) During my research I came across a large format book containing among other things photographs of items in the Kassel museum.  The creation of the item below was ascribed to Johann Bessler and a date was provided, 1721.  This particular device was not something we usually associate with Bessler but given his wide experience and unique number of manufacturing skills it is easy to imagine he was able to produce this device, but whether he also made the beautiful box containing the device is not stated. 

The device is called a Hydrostatic Balance and the photo was taken by H.L. at Kassel, Hess, Landesmuseum.  The book in which the photo appeared was called Mathematical Instruments 1960, and edited by Henri Michel. I thought its inclusion might be of interest. Bessler has given the impression that he worked on other devices and I assume that with his title of commercial councillor he might have advised or even made various items within the scope of his employment.

4)  A slightly oddball character called J.C.F. Von Hatzfeld had offered several designs for perpetual motion machines to both the Royal Society and to Sir Isaac Newton directly.  Mostly they ignored him and Newton didn’t even acknowledge the letter although it resides in the records. Von Harzfeld was persistent but he was treated as if he were little more than annoying insect buzzing around the heads of these important people.  I thought I’d post one of his designs dated 1725, not that I think it has merit, but you can assume that this topic of conversation was very much in the news at the time.  Von Hatzfeld mentioned Orffyreus several times in his previous correspondence which didn’t endear him to his recipients 
Here is the same design enlarged.  But is still won’t work!


The Legend of Bessler’s Perpetual Motion Machine

On 6th June, 1712, in Germany, Johann Bessler (also known by his pseudonym, Orffyreus) announced that after many years of failure, h...